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Bad Effects Of Smoking Essay - 581 Words - brightkite com

Harmful effect of smoking essay

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Bad Effects Of Smoking Essay - 581 Words - brightkite com

Business Unit Manager Resume Samples. The best examples from thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by resume experts based on rigorous standards. Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Harmful Essay! Business Unit Managers oversee a company's operations and supervise staff in lord flies id ego, order to improve business performance. Their duties include recruiting and training employers, budgeting, monitoring expenses, handling supplies, and quality assurance, among many others. Sample resumes for Business Unit Managers mention qualifications such as leadership, technical expertise, communication and organizational skills, and the ability to supervise and effect motivate teams efficiently. The majority of candidates to this job display a degree in a relevant field in their resumes. 2013 Help! Looking for job listings? Check out our Business Unit Manager Jobs page. Manage the performance of up to 60 domestic and 25 offshore employees in three different locations with an annual budget of $1,200,000.

Function as the primary point of contact for clients, conduct financial analysis, perform financial forecasting and harmful of smoking annual budgeting. Oversee two 8-hour shifts, 5 days a week processing transactions and ensured all customer turnaround times are met. Develop and implement workflow and process improvements, manage the supplement help staff, process payrolls, deploy new projects and change requests. Administer transaction processing of up to 15000 paper documents daily for the credit card and financial industry; consistently deliver a 99% rate on a 24-hour TAT with 99.5% quality rating. Effect Of Smoking Essay! Successfully achieved all SLA requirements and increased profitability from id ego essay 12% EBIT to 23% by implementing strict cost reductions. Reduced facility lease costs, implemented technology improvements and reduced headcount delivering net savings of $280K over of smoking, 3 years through the ACS COI (Cost Optimization Initiative) program. Updated the technology for overseas T1 lines which resulted in lord flies id ego essay, an annual savings of $15K. Managed 5 salary positions and 160 non-union employees on 2 highly technical cone lines, which exceeds 48mm in total cost of effect, production. Achieved a 300% reduction in safety injuries through the implementation of the leader helping leader program. Cover Letter! Responsible for 1.6mm in productivity savings using multiple strategies going after our top loss issues which included a reduction in material loss by 11% vs. prior year.

Led team in understanding of essay, KPI's and development of cascading measures to drive continuous improvement. Developed systems and processes to prevent reoccurrence of losses and breakdowns through our goal alignment process. Deployed appropriate resources based on IPA tool and trend analysis, which assisted in cold cover, a 10% efficiency gain vs. prior year. Reduced consumer complaints by 20% vs. prior year through the use of prioritization matrix, which yielded strategies leading to harmful effect essay significant improvements. Coached my direct reports, including weekly one on one's, developing their leadership skills along with direct coaching and mentoring of their employees. Stamping shift leader of upenn help, skilled trades personnel. Managed budget minimizing equipment down time and harmful effect essay meeting production schedules. Exceeded department goals in all metrics. Letter! Implemented planned maintenance program reducing maintenance down time by harmful of smoking, 30% and improving equipment uptime by 25%, improving profitability. Established and fostered team concept in trade's organization, resulting in upenn supplement essay 2013, multi-trade tasking and improving productivity. Developed containment process for non-conforming product resulting in 100% accountability.

Created minor repair process improving equipment up time by 20%, exceeding expectations. Supervise up to 220 hourly employees. 1 Production Manager, 3 Operations Supervisors, 11 Line Team Leaders from 23 different production lines from7 different processes in of smoking essay, a gum factory facility on a 24/7 operation. Created and Implemented Production Department Structure. Established standardized operational practices across the different departments.

Generated $704,000 in positive labor variance across all departments. Certified all Pellet Gum Lines and The Sweetener Extrusion Line at a 3 Sigma level. Reduced TIR from 1.56 to 0.39 by creating and implementing recurrent safety audits across all departments Implemented 5's practices across all departments. Management of Foodservice Smallwares Business segment with full PL responsibility. Revised Sales Rep base and essay consolidated distribution channels improving on time delivery to 95+%. Increased sales over 3 years from $10mm annual to $20mm, with expanded sales of of smoking essay, existing product and introduction of 3 new product lines each resulting in a 38 % pretax profit Utilized 80/20 principles for product line simplification and standardization. Reduction of end items by 15%, improving both order fill and line fill to 95% on time. Letter! Responsible for development and management of cross functional teams of of smoking essay, new product development improving custom product design and quote turnaround by 50% Full PL Responsibility managing $185 M revenue leading a staff of 280 Employees. Responsibilities include negotiating and of the flies id ego and superego establishing a pricing strategy improving Operating Margins by driving down manufacturing costs. Essay! Improving DII through Inventory reductions and cold cover aggressive EI management.

Owned and managed Request for Proposal (RFP) process for assigned customer accounts supported RFP processes for new accounts. Reduced Manufacturing costs by 15% over a period of 6 months through improving efficiencies by utilizing Lean and Six sigma methodologies. Drove the QBR process with the customer managing key metrics of Customer satisfaction (Safety, Quality, On Time Delivery and Cost) Worked successfully with supply bases establishing VMI, along with establishing several consigned inventory models by establishments of Hubs, improving Inventory carrying costs. Improved material costs (BOM costs) through vendor negotiations and the supply chain management team, saving $600,000 in 2013 and another $500,000 projected in 2014 for harmful effect of smoking essay, total of $1.1 million reoccurring savings. These initiatives increased EBITDA by 2% year over year. Modeled the MPS load based on Forecast to id ego and superego essay consumption driving reductions in inventory to a tune of $16M improving Inventory Turns.

Directed the rolling 3 year growth strategy and harmful effect of smoking essay execution of Capital Projects. Drove Operations excellence through KPI in compare essay 451, the areas of throughput improvement, Quality and harmful effect essay Materials. Specialized in the BTO / CTO of High demand variability Models. (Month end / Quarter end Hockey Stick Models) Worked with consigned inventory of the refurbishment business (aftermarket), driving workmanship standards developing turnaround times of under 7 days. Oversaw the merger of four distribution facilities. Flies Id Ego! Combined resources, eliminated inefficiencies and increased market power. Developed a unified working relationship with management and effect service personnel, focused around customer service and growth. Exceeded company sales goals by creating and implementing strategies to increase customer Managed PL statements and budget. Maintained financial performance by managing product Provided leadership by letter, selecting and hiring high quality employees, setting clear work Ensured compliance with safety codes and company policies. Responsible for safety, planning, quality, cost, production, and shipping of 1,000,000 annual tons of linerboard and saturating kraft paper.

Led efforts in manufacturing excellence which set new annual production records in 2013. Continually improved quality expectations creating an harmful, environment which produced record low quality complaints in 2013. Team efforts resulted in significant production cost reductions and waste elimination. Fcc Information! Supervised teams of technicians for daily operations and production. Hired, trained and harmful of smoking supervised personnel for qualified class 10000 clean room operations. Maintained test data for quality process Performed routine physical inventory and kitted job work orders Ensured the execution of all safety, and essay operations policies Provided interpersonal communications, teamwork, customer service support.

Global responsibility for developing the right actions to maximize total global business performance. Responsible for development of global product growth strategy through new product development of $100M business. Lead global product launches and harmful essay supported local marketing initiatives working with regional teams, RD, Industrial team, Product Engineering, Quality and OEMs resulting in global sales growth. Global segment financial responsibility. Led segments to improved profitability with product enhancements, simplifications and packaging reassessments resulting in achievement of cost reductions upwards of upenn supplement 2013 help, 48%. Led development of new product testing for performance benchmark studies which resulted in consumer preferred claims development. Led product sustainable development initiatives including launch of products containing upward of 98% recycled plastic and harmful utilization of renewable materials. Led all marketing efforts and product development for new category of strategic technology product projects. Led review of potential technology partnership/acquisition for senior management team.

Free Professional Resume Critique. We have partnered with TopResume to compare essay fahrenheit bring you a FREE resume critique service. Upload your resume and harmful within 48 hours TopResume will email you a detailed analysis of what hiring managers and automated systems think of your resume – and fcc information essay how to improve it.

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The Harmful Effects Of Smoking Health And Social Care Essay

LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to effect of smoking, bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in management, place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in harmful of smoking, concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. Fcc Information. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of harmful essay a [practicing] lawyer.

I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the steps €” keeps you from worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. And Contrast Essay. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an harmful effect example of compare and contrast fahrenheit 451 LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and harmful effect essay Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into of the flies and superego essay, the exam with you (save the code in a course based on of smoking, a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.

Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to cold, how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the harmful effect of smoking professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of essay individual professors. There follow three examples of of smoking essay hypotheticals selected from among the cold eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer.

Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per essay, issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer.

You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the supplement essay 2013 help model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in of smoking essay, any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor.

Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Cover. Be a dear and harmful effect of smoking bring home din-din. I'm going to be in letter, the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.

He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the effect essay club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and essay 451 Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to effect, serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and resources complaint was affixed to the door of his home.

Another was mailed to him. Essay. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the upenn 2013 summons and effect of smoking essay blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by upenn supplement help his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against harmful effect of smoking essay, the action. By Law Does To Provide Termination. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of of smoking personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for essay a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on of smoking essay, the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and resources appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of essay law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies.

RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in essay, your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against harmful of smoking, disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper).

Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the fcc information rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to effect of smoking essay, its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Of The Id Ego Essay. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to essay, substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at fcc information the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by harmful essay regular mail to upenn, said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at harmful effect a defendant's place of Human business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to effect of smoking, dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the lord of the flies id ego and superego essay defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the of smoking essay existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond.

Failure to timely respond results in compare and contrast essay 451, the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is of smoking permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is fcc information not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of of smoking essay law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for fcc information essay reasons of effect economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is compare and contrast essay fahrenheit 451 generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on harmful of smoking essay, the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of of the flies and superego essay action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to harmful, appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the Human subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL.

(1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and harmful of smoking essay party objective(s) for each of the lord of the id ego and superego essay six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. Effect Of Smoking Essay. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other.

However, given that this is management a civil procedure exam, the harmful effect of smoking essay objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. Lord Of The Flies Id Ego And Superego Essay. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable.

4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in essay, small claims court vs. By Law An Employer Have Paperwork. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to of smoking, be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of essay fahrenheit 451 thought and harmful of smoking be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on I shall work on each question to completion before going on have termination paperwork, to the next .]

Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. Harmful Effect Essay. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of essay 451 personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides.

5 = Requests for harmful effect of smoking essay admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for fcc information essay each event/motion, and since I am working on of smoking essay, each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. By Law Does Have To Provide Paperwork. It is part and effect of smoking essay parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is fcc information necessary to state all of the effect of smoking essay law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of cover discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose.

Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in harmful effect of smoking, New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for have termination paperwork trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of harmful effect essay law to flies and superego, relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. Of Smoking. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and compare fahrenheit mail service will satisfy the harmful requirements of fcc information personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the effect of smoking essay defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of does termination suitable age and discretion at of smoking the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.]

Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of upenn essay help personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the harmful essay defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon does an employer to provide termination, the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of essay personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and does an employer is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and of smoking appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to fcc information essay, sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.]

Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of harmful of smoking essay facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at Human management trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per harmful, se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in cold cover letter, some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law.

Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on harmful essay, the merits of a claim or cause of cold action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in harmful effect essay, a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in of the flies id ego and superego essay, the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in of smoking, small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in Human, 1998 by effect of smoking the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and compare and contrast essay fahrenheit 451 articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over harmful effect essay, the counter, and fcc information essay 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and effect invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found.

The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of letter seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by harmful effect essay far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of essay 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to harmful effect essay, accede to of the flies id ego and superego, the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to essay, the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in cold, connection with the harmful effect pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action. Fcc Information. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same.

Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the harmful effect of smoking essay court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and id ego powers of the corporation, but performed in harmful of smoking essay, an unauthorized manner or without authority. Lord Id Ego And Superego. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to effect of smoking, the following: 1) the by law does have paperwork right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for effect of smoking essay the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the Human stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of harmful of smoking outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to Human, the corporation occurred; and 3) the harmful of smoking essay plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the supplement demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of harmful essay derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the lord of the flies id ego essay corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000.

Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in harmful of smoking essay, settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the cover letter action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of effect of smoking good faith and reasonable care in of the id ego, the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is harmful effect shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.]

Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the does an employer paperwork motions.]

1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for harmful effect essay 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. Human Resources Management. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for effect of smoking essay purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond.

3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for cold a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to effect of smoking, be performed in upenn supplement essay 2013, writing the of smoking actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action.

Generally, a shareholder may sue the have to provide termination paperwork corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Harmful Effect Essay. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and upenn supplement essay records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the harmful of smoking stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares.

M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. By Law An Employer Have To Provide Termination Paperwork. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the effect of smoking essay initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the Human resources management purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the of smoking essay purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for essay the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and harmful retail accessories for essay 2013 off-road vehicles, the harmful Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the flies and superego appearance of an effect ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to cold letter, minimize the possibility of harmful effect of smoking essay derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at cold cover letter least five percent of harmful of smoking any class of outstanding shares, or the by law to provide termination value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the of smoking initial 100,000 share offering.

Their value at of the id ego essay the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of effect essay forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. Cold Cover. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. Harmful Of Smoking Essay. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against does to provide termination, him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.

The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of harmful effect of smoking defending the management action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and effect directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to by law an employer have to provide termination paperwork, begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in essay, part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to upenn supplement help, act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on harmful essay, the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on fcc information essay, behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by harmful of smoking essay the terms of cover which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X.

Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to harmful, my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of supplement my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in essay, 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000.

3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in upenn 2013 help, 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of harmful who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in Human resources, existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for harmful effect example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.

Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at compare essay least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is of smoking so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction.

Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from management all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and harmful of smoking where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and letter extent of his property, and harmful essay recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.

Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to essay 451, take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is harmful of smoking valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play.

However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. Upenn Supplement 2013. My impression is essay that once the lord of the essay controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an of smoking interesting discussion. Preview of cold cover letter a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the harmful essay obvious first step.

Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to resources management, have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the of smoking 1994 will.

There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of fcc information essay no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is harmful of smoking essay revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the flies and superego rest, residue, and harmful of smoking remainder of lord of the flies and superego essay T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from of smoking essay all other articles of the cover same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. Of Smoking. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Fcc Information Essay. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to effect, T's death, the essay republication of the harmful 1994 will is by law termination paperwork of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.

A disposition to harmful essay, a beneficiary who predeceases the essay 451 testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in effect essay, many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Of The And Superego. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per effect, stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at compare essay 451 least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.

S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the harmful effect of smoking will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to lord essay, the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the effect essay will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. Letter. Y, however, not S stood to of smoking essay, take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary.

However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and Human management garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to harmful effect, put it on an employer paperwork, the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to essay, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to fcc information essay, us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of harmful effect of smoking LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to lord id ego, students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades.

His accompanying remarks are reprinted in effect, the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is of the and superego surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the of smoking examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. Essay Fahrenheit. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by essay merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in an employer paperwork, general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6]

Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above.

F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an essay examination booklet consisting of Human management 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions.

If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.).

When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and harmful effect staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Compare And Contrast. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by essay number. 3. Write on only one side of of the and superego a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to of smoking essay, indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and 2013 the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in.

You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over effect, a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for by law termination paperwork relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the harmful effect of smoking person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to compare and contrast essay fahrenheit, the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points.

They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Harmful Essay. Respond fully to the following memorandum from does an employer have paperwork one of your employers. Effect Of Smoking. €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006.

[Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. By Law To Provide Termination Paperwork. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and of smoking essay Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the Human resources management bank send them the harmful of smoking paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of essay approximately $5,000.

The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by effect of smoking the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and compare and contrast Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for effect of smoking Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in cold cover, Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to effect essay, the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against lord flies essay, her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against effect essay, Isolde with the 2013 United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there.

[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to effect of smoking, me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to lord of the id ego and superego essay, the enforcement proceedings in of smoking essay, Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the of the flies essay following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde.

Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia.

Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to harmful, me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of upenn supplement essay help a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of harmful of smoking I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in have to provide termination, the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of harmful effect essay limited jurisdiction; they can only Human management hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by effect of smoking essay Congressional Statute.

First Commercial will argue that the lord of the and superego US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on harmful, the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for fcc information one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the harmful effect of smoking essay two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on lord of the flies essay, her own. Harmful Of Smoking Essay. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction.

However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the cold cover letter intent of harmful staying for an employer to provide termination paperwork the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Harmful Effect Of Smoking Essay. Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and cover letter laws of the harmful of smoking United States.

Subject-matter jurisdiction is by law an employer to provide termination paperwork never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in harmful of smoking essay, Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the letter alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the effect of smoking facts to support your analysis. Fcc Information. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in of smoking essay, the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B.

The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the by law an employer have state in which they are situated, so the essay District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only an employer if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Harmful Effect. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in supplement essay, Swabia to establish diversity of harmful effect citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of cover domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of harmful effect of smoking students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in lord of the id ego essay, part of the of smoking essay answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Cover. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the harmful of smoking facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to letter, study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the State.€ť The claim for relief, the harmful effect of smoking essay $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia.

Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is compare and contrast 451 a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. Harmful Essay. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to cold letter, stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the effect of smoking partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to cold letter, the bank. Effect Essay. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. Compare 451. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. Harmful Effect Of Smoking. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing.

Indulging in Human, speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of harmful effect of smoking essay life, liberty or property without due process of cold law. Harmful. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of does to provide paperwork state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the effect forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of Human resources management fair play and substantial justice. Effect Of Smoking. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to supplement 2013 help, the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of harmful of smoking a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the Human management privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the effect of smoking loan.

They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the cover contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over harmful of smoking, any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of cover First National in litigating in harmful effect of smoking essay, Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to fcc information essay, a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in effect, adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the fahrenheit 451 choice of harmful of smoking law provision; Prussia has an by law does have to provide termination interest in adjudicating its own laws.

The interest of the harmful essay several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the cold picture, so the fairness factors do not point to harmful of smoking essay, Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of essay help lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of effect of smoking process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and cover letter Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of effect knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to Human management, read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and harmful effect essay a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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The Harmful Effects Of Smoking Health And Social Care Essay

The Auto Bailout and the Rule of Law. W hen President Dwight Eisenhower named Charles Wilson then the president of General Motors to be his secretary of defense in 1953, some senators considering the nomination wondered whether Wilson could distinguish his loyalty to GM from his obligations to the country. Wilson assured them that he could, but then added that he did not think a conflict would ever come up. For years I have thought that what was good for harmful essay the country was good for General Motors, and vice versa, he said in his confirmation hearing. Wilson's statement especially that vice versa was long considered the cold cover, epitome of corporatist excess. To many, it represented the view that the government existed to advance the harmful effect essay, interests of large corporations (and, of course, vice versa), even if the arrangement came at the expense of average citizens and workers. In the fcc information, past three years, however, Wilson's attitude has come back into vogue, as a new approach to the relationship between the government and harmful effect of smoking, the private sector has taken hold in Washington. That approach a kind of state capitalism that seeks to entangle the government and large corporations in order to allow for careful management of the economy is perhaps best embodied in essay 451, the government bailout and subsequent bankruptcy of Wilson's old company, and of one of its longstanding competitors.

The bailouts of General Motors and Chrysler have been held up by President Obama and of smoking essay, his supporters as a great success story proof that, by working together, government and by law an employer have to provide paperwork, business can save jobs and strengthen the economy. But this popular narrative is dangerously misleading. Far from a success story, the events surrounding the of smoking essay, bailouts offer a cautionary tale of executive overreach. And their example clarifies the Obama administration's broader approach to economic policy an approach that is both harmful to economic growth and dangerous to by law does an employer to provide paperwork, the rule of law. By December 2008, years of decline had finally caught up with Chrysler and General Motors. Unlike Ford, which had moved aggressively to fix its longstanding problems chiefly by shedding unprofitable subsidiaries and renegotiating labor agreements GM and harmful of smoking, Chrysler were still plagued by incompetence and inefficiency.

Both automakers were burdened with labor contracts that undermined their flexibility and saddled them with massive retiree pension and health-benefit costs. For years, both companies had also been losing market share: Once-proud GM had lost $40 billion in 2007, and in 2008 alone saw its sales decline by 45%. Chrysler, meanwhile, was languishing under the inept management of Cerberus Capital, which had bought the company in the spring of 2007 from the German automaker Daimler. (Daimler had merged with Chrysler in 1998 only to see its new American acquisition become an unsustainable liability.) By 2008, Chrysler's market share had been declining precipitously for a decade, falling by more than 30% in that year alone. Finally, the onset of the credit crunch and financial crisis in the fall of fahrenheit 451 2008 proved to be the companies' death knell. Harmful Effect Of Smoking. But though their fates seemed to be sealed, both automakers brazenly refused to make plans for bankruptcy filings. They assumed that the federal government would not allow them to suffer the same fate as most other poorly managed companies in America. So they pleaded for a federal bailout, arguing that Washington's failure to provide one would result in the companies' liquidation in part precisely because the automakers' failure to prepare for bankruptcy filings would end up producing disorderly bankruptcies that, in have to provide termination, turn, would make it difficult to keep the companies alive. And liquidation, they argued, would eliminate thousands of jobs at essay, the companies themselves, not to mention thousands more at lord of the id ego, suppliers and of smoking, dealers. It would also destroy the companies' underfunded retiree pension and health benefits and because they were backed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, a government agency that guarantees some private pension systems might in turn foist those obligations on the taxpayer. With the economy already reeling from the financial crisis, the automakers insisted, the by law does an employer termination paperwork, shock of of smoking massive auto-industry layoffs would be too much to take. On December 11, 2008, the essay, House of Representatives buckled under the automakers' demands, voting (largely along party lines) in favor of a $14 billion bailout.

The next day, however, the Senate voted down the legislation. A week later, lame-duck President George W. Bush and Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson intervened. Announcing that the administration would offer the automakers loans with terms similar to harmful of smoking essay, the ones Congress had voted down, Bush gave GM and Chrysler three months to develop restructuring plans and prove they could become viable companies. By Law Paperwork. To help the automakers through that phase (and a possible Chapter 11 bankruptcy), the administration extended them $17.4 billion from the Troubled Asset Relief Program, which had originally been set up to harmful effect, buy assets and equities from the financial sector in of the flies, the wake of the mortgage crisis. In March 2009, when the lifeline extended by the Bush administration had run out, President Obama stepped in. The administration forced out the CEO of General Motors, Rick Wagoner, and gave Chrysler 30 days to finalize a merger with the Italian automaker Fiat. In exchange, the companies received another (and even larger) round of government loans.

In the end, almost $77 billion in harmful effect, TARP funds was diverted to GM and lord id ego and superego, Chrysler. But in spite of the generous loans, extensions, and harmful essay, second chances, the Obama administration finally concluded that the companies' restructuring plans were insufficient. In the spring of 2009, it directed both automakers to proceed into Chapter 11 bankruptcy Chrysler filed on April 30, and GM on June 1. Human Resources. In both cases, bankruptcy involved creating new companies the so-called new Chrysler and new GM in which the federal government would have a significant stake, and to which the bulk of the assets of the original companies (including all of their plants, equipment, brands, and effect of smoking, trademarks) would be sold. The original companies, meanwhile, would settle their obligations to an employer have to provide paperwork, creditors and shed those assets that would not be transferred to the new companies. Their shareholders would be all but wiped out. The automakers' house-cleaning didn't take long; within two months of filing, each company had emerged from harmful of smoking, its bankruptcy. By the Human resources management, summer of 2009, the new General Motors was a somewhat smaller and leaner company, having shed about a third of its American work force.

It was owned jointly by the federal government (which held 60% of the stock), the essay, United Auto Workers union (with 17%), and the Canadian government (with 12% ownership). Fcc Information Essay. Chrysler, meanwhile, emerged through an alliance with Fiat, under which the new company was owned by the United Auto Workers (with a 55% share), Fiat (with 20%), the United States government (with 8%), and Canada (with 2%). (Both GM and Chrysler have significant operations and large work forces in Canada; the Canadian government, facing pressures similar to effect, those exerted on lawmakers in the U.S., also contributed bailout funds about $800 million for upenn essay help Chrysler and $2.4 billion for GM hence its ownership stakes.) The idea was for the companies to go public within a few months, at which point the U.S. Harmful Of Smoking. government would sell most of its shares. GM did in fact go public in November 2010, raising about $20 billion in the biggest initial public offering in American history. Through the stock sale, the government's share in the company was reduced to fahrenheit, about 30%. The new Chrysler has not yet gone public indeed, the company reported a $200 million loss in the last quarter of 2010 but industry analysts believe it will later this year. To the Obama administration, and to many other champions of the auto bailout in Congress and the press, the harmful effect of smoking essay, story outlined here is one of by law an employer extraordinary success.

Supporting the American auto industry required tough decisions and shared sacrifices, but it helped save jobs, rescue an industry at the heart of America's manufacturing sector, and make it more competitive for effect of smoking essay the future, President Obama said when the new General Motors went public last November. Then-speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi echoed his view, arguing: In the midst of a severe recession, congressional Democrats and President Obama took difficult emergency action to rescue American auto companies and resources management, strengthen critical pillars of our manufacturing sector, while protecting taxpayers. Of course, this success narrative is of smoking essay, based on a particular reading of the events surrounding the bailout. According to that reading, the have termination, nature of the '08 financial crisis as well as the economic importance of the auto industry meant that the government simply could not let GM and Chrysler go under. Harmful Effect. But at least the unprecedented cooperation between the government and cold cover, the automakers was undertaken in a deliberate, careful way using the government's special authority to contend with the economic crisis in order to harmful effect of smoking essay, guide the companies through an orderly re-organization (rather than the dreaded chaotic collapse). As a result, the supplement essay 2013, companies were saved, and now they have a chance to thrive again. Unfortunately, every part of this reading of events is wrong. The first premise of the success story narrative is that, if not for the bailout, General Motors and Chrysler would have been liquidated causing the loss of many thousands of jobs at harmful effect of smoking essay, those companies and reverberating throughout the industry at the cost of many thousands more. The disappearance of GM in particular with its roughly 100,000 American employees and by law does paperwork, its central place in the chain of suppliers, parts manufacturers, and dealers would have marked the end of the American automobile industry.

If GM were to go into a free-fall bankruptcy and didn't pay its trade debts, then the entire domestic auto industry shuts down, one industry analyst told Time magazine in November 2008. Just before the bailouts, reporters heard much the same case made by officials in the Bush administration. But this nightmare scenario was never likely to happen. In the absence of a bailout, GM and effect of smoking, Chrysler would each have been forced to file for bankruptcy like any other company in their circumstances. And Contrast Fahrenheit 451. It is possible that Chrysler would have then faced liquidation (though even this is questionable, given the value of its assets and its brands).

General Motors, however, would almost certainly have been re-organized. In all likelihood, this re-organization would have produced a company more competitive than the one that emerged from the bailout process. Indeed, GM was practically a poster child for Chapter 11 re-organization. The roots of our approach to such re-organization go back to the 19 th century when creditors of harmful railroads that were unable to lord and superego essay, meet their debt obligations threatened to tear up the rail companies' tracks, melt them down, and sell the harmful of smoking, steel as scrap. Innovative judges, lawyers, and businessmen recognized that creditors would collect more over time if they all agreed instead to reduce their claims and keep the railroads running, thus allowing the companies to produce revenues to pay off their debts. This same logic animates Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code today.

To understand why GM was an obvious candidate for Chapter 11 re-organization (rather than liquidation), it is important to start with the cover letter, fundamental issue facing any firm filing for bankruptcy the harmful, question of Human resources management whether it is economically failed or simply in harmful effect, financial distress. Management. In deciding between the two, one considers whether it would be most efficient to continue to deploy the company's assets its financial, physical, and human capital by re-organizing, or instead to liquidate the company and allow those assets to be redeployed elsewhere in the economy. Harmful Essay. For example, if a typewriter manufacturer were to file for bankruptcy today, it likely would be considered an economically failed enterprise: The market for typewriters is small and shrinking, and the manufacturer's financial, physical, and lord of the flies and superego essay, human capital would probably be better used elsewhere (perhaps in making computers). A financially distressed enterprise, on the other hand, is harmful effect of smoking, worth more alive than dead: It may have fallen on hard times the result of mismanagement or an economic downturn, perhaps but still provides a product or service that is in demand (and so could someday make for a thriving firm). Through the use of Chapter 11, such a company can continue to operate while re-organizing to get out from under its debts. In recent decades, we have seen this logic at work with firms across several industries.

Virtually every major airline has been through bankruptcy at least once, as have K-Mart, Macy's, and a host of other familiar brands that are still very much in business. Others have filed for bankruptcy and resources, disappeared Montgomery Ward, TWA, and Enron, for of smoking essay instance, were found to be economically failed and so were liquidated. Since the onset of the Great Recession in 2008, we have seen this process replicated many times: Numerous retailers (like Crabtree Evelyn and compare and contrast essay 451, the Boscov's department-store chain) have successfully streamlined operations and harmful of smoking essay, re-organized under Chapter 11, while other well-known retailers (such as Circuit City and Linens 'n Things) have shuttered their stores. In late 2008, General Motors was a classic case of a financially distressed rather than an economically failed enterprise. Human Management. It had a skilled and experienced work force, a stable of longstanding and well-respected brands, and an extended system of relationships with suppliers and customers all of which illustrated both its underlying value and harmful of smoking, potential. Fcc Information. But the company also had several major financial liabilities: expensive labor contracts, massive legacy costs for pensions and health care, and an outdated and effect of smoking essay, overgrown distribution system of dealerships that needed to be streamlined. Cover. A Chapter 11 re-organization would have given GM an opportunity perhaps its only opportunity to cut loose this dead weight. The only obstacle to such a restructuring might have been the requirement that a re-organizing company obtain so-called debtor in possession financing loans of funds it can use in the actual process of re-organization, and which receive first priority in repayment. Some have argued that, in light of GM's size and the instability in effect of smoking essay, the credit markets at an employer termination, the time, the automaker might not have been able to secure such loans. While this may be true, a reasonable argument could be made that, under those circumstances, it would have been appropriate to use funds from the Troubled Asset Relief Program to lend or guarantee debtor-in-possession financing to GM. After all, the purpose of TARP was to address liquidity problems in harmful effect of smoking, lending markets and to stave off bank runs that might have threatened the does an employer have to provide termination paperwork, stability of solvent institutions.

And any failure by GM to obtain debtor-in-possession financing would have been attributable to such liquidity problems in the lending markets. Using TARP funds for this limited purpose presumably would have required new statutory authorization, but it would have been consistent with TARP's rationale, and would have also provided a limiting principle that would have ruled out the heavy-handed intervention eventually pursued by the government. Plus, congressional approval of effect of smoking essay such a measure probably would have been more forthcoming than approval of a straightforward bailout. Letter. Instead, the Bush administration evidently in a state of panic as the economic crisis continued to mount pursued a far more open-ended use of TARP funds, injecting billions directly into effect, Chrysler and GM. Here we encounter the next premise of the success-story narrative: that, in moving to avert a catastrophe in the auto industry, the essay, president made legitimate use of the harmful effect of smoking, emergency authority and resources he was granted by Congress to address the economic crisis. In truth, however, the use of TARP funds to bail out GM and Chrysler most likely violated the law. The Troubled Asset Relief Program authorized the secretary of the cold cover letter, Treasury to purchase. troubled assets from any financial institution, on such terms and conditions as are determined by the Secretary; the law also gave the Treasury secretary power to take such actions as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the authorities in the legislation.

As Boston University law professor Gary Lawson noted in the Harvard Journal of Law Public Policy last year, the effect of smoking essay, boundaries set on the use of these funds were so vague and so loose as to produce something approaching a slush fund for the Treasury. And yet, loose as it was, the TARP legislation did not permit the of the and superego essay, use of the allotted funds to bail out automakers. The car companies, after all, were not financial institutions. Indeed, when the idea of bailing out Chrysler and GM came up, the effect essay, congressional leadership decided that such a move would require new legislation, even though voting on a bill would necessarily put every member of Congress in a difficult spot. Supporting it would mean backing yet another bailout when the public was already outraged over TARP and the other lifelines to Wall Street, while voting against the legislation would mean declining to help American autoworkers.

It is unlikely that Congress would have taken up such a difficult measure if the leaders of the essay 2013 help, House and Senate thought GM and Chrysler could be helped without a new law. When President Bush acted on his own, some opponents of the effect of smoking, bailout in Congress raised alarms about the legality of his decision. A group of 26 irate Republican lawmakers sent a sharp letter to the president complaining that Congress never voted for a federal bailout of the automobile industry, and the only way for TARP funds to be diverted to domestic automakers is with explicit congressional approval. Supporters of the bailout kept mum about the question of legality. For its part, the September 2009 report of the upenn supplement 2013, Congressional Oversight Panel of TARP noted that the essay, question of the basic legality of the auto bailout was one of considerable debate characterized by significant ambiguity in the legislative language and congressional intent. But the panel cited no specific instance of ambiguity, and it is very hard to see how a bailout of automakers could have been the intent of the original TARP legislation let alone to see how the letter of the law could be read to permit such use of TARP dollars.

Unfortunately, the use of TARP funds to bail out the auto industry was never tested in court. Although a challenge was raised by some of Chrysler's creditors as part of the compare essay, company's bankruptcy case, the bankruptcy court refused them standing on that issue (arguing that the harmful effect essay, particular mechanism behind the bailout was not relevant to their claims). The Supreme Court later held any further challenges to the legality of any aspect of the Chrysler case to be moot, without offering specific justifications. The bailouts of GM and lord of the flies id ego essay, Chrysler at the end of 2008 and the extension of of smoking those bailouts in the beginning of 2009 were therefore both unnecessary and very likely illegal. But that was hardly the end of the story. After the bailouts came the arranged bankruptcies. At first, when the government announced that Chrysler and General Motors would be filing for Chapter 11, the news was received with relief by the market, the companies' creditors, and everyone concerned for the rule of law. The mess created by Human resources the bailout could finally begin to harmful effect of smoking, move from the political arena to the legal arena, and so regain some semblance of legitimacy and order.

But it wasn't long before these hopes were dashed by the government's management of the process. Instead of fcc information essay a regular bankruptcy proceeding, the effect, Obama administration, working with the automakers, patched together a process without precedent a bankruptcy combined with a bailout, incorporating the worst elements of both. Of the fcc information, two proceedings, Chrysler's was clearly the harmful of smoking essay, more egregious. In the years leading up to the economic crisis, Chrysler had been unable to acquire routine financing and so had been forced to turn to Human management, so-called secured debt in harmful effect essay, order to fund its operations. Secured debt takes first priority in 2013, payment; it is also typically preserved during bankruptcy under what is referred to as the absolute priority rule since the lender of secured debt offers a loan to a troubled borrower only because he is harmful of smoking essay, guaranteed first repayment when the loan is up. In the Chrysler case, however, creditors who held the company's secured bonds were steamrolled into accepting 29 cents on the dollar for their loans. Flies Id Ego Essay. Meanwhile, the underfunded pension plans of the United Auto Workers unsecured creditors, but possessed of better political connections received more than 40 cents on the dollar. Moreover, in a typical bankruptcy case in which a secured creditor is effect of smoking, not paid in fcc information, full, he is entitled to a deficiency claim the terms of which keep the bankrupt company liable for a portion of the unpaid debt.

In both the harmful, Chrysler and GM bankruptcies, however, no deficiency claims were awarded to the wronged creditors. Were bankruptcy experts to comb through American history, they would be hard-pressed to identify any bankruptcy case with similar terms. To make matters worse, both bankruptcies were orchestrated as so-called section 363 sales. This meant that essentially all the assets of lord flies old Chrysler were sold to new Chrysler (and old GM to harmful effect of smoking essay, new GM), and were pushed through in fcc information, a rush. These sales violated the longstanding bankruptcy principle that an asset sale should not be functionally equivalent to a plan of re-organization for an entire company what bankruptcy lawyers call a sub rosa plan. The reason is that the re-organization process offers all creditors the right to effect of smoking, vote on the proposed plan as well as a chance to offer competing re-organization plans, while an asset sale can be carried out without such a vote. In the cases of GM and Chrysler, however, the Human, government essentially pushed through a re-organization disguised as a sale, and so denied the creditors their rights. As the of smoking essay, University of Pennsylvania's David Skeel observed last year, selling an entire company of GM or Chrysler's size and complexity in this manner was unprecedented. Even on a smaller scale, it would have been highly irregular: While rush bankruptcy sales of much smaller companies were once common, the bankruptcy laws were overhauled in 1978 precisely to fcc information, eliminate this practice.

At first, the fact that the companies' creditors (and especially Chrysler's creditors, who were so badly mistreated) put up with such terms and waived their property rights seems astonishing. But it becomes less so and sheds more light on how this entire process imperils the rule of law when one considers the effect of smoking, enormous leverage the cover, federal government had over of smoking most of these creditors. Many of Chrysler's secured-bond holders were large financial institutions several of which had previously been saved from compare and contrast essay 451, failure by TARP. Effect Of Smoking Essay. Though there is no explicit evidence that support from TARP funds bought these bond holders' acquiescence in the Chrysler case, their silence in the face of a massive financial haircut is otherwise very difficult to explain. Indeed, those secured-bond holders who were not supported by TARP did not go nearly as quietly.

A group of hedge funds that were among Chrysler's creditors initially objected to does an employer have paperwork, the bailout plan that preferred the UAW at their expense. In a now-infamous speech in April 2009, President Obama publicly attacked these investors who were merely standing up for their contract and of smoking essay, property rights as profiteers, criticizing them for their unwillingness to make the same sacrifices as other investors (but not, of upenn essay 2013 course, UAW members, who received a windfall). In response to harmful effect essay, this public browbeating from the president of the United States, the hedge funds caved and agreed to the terms. 2013 Help. In the end, only one group of Chrysler bond holders the Indiana state teacher and police pension funds continued to object. Indeed, they objected at every stage of the process, but the Supreme Court declined to effect of smoking essay, hear their case. General Motors, too, had issued secured debt during its years of financial turmoil, but these bonds made up a far smaller fraction of the company's total outstanding debt. And in striking contrast with the Chrysler case, General Motors's bankruptcy plan left the secured creditors intact, paying them the full value of their claims. From the supplement 2013 help, perspective of bankruptcy law and contract rights, this development was encouraging: The Obama administration did not seek to plunder GM's secured creditors as it had Chrysler's. From the perspective of the rule of law, however, this differential treatment might have been even more troubling. On the harmful, matter of secured-bond holders, the cases of cold GM and Chrysler were functionally indistinguishable and yet GM's secured creditors were treated far better than Chrysler's.

The administration offered no public justification for this differential treatment, and to an outside observer, there was only one key difference between the cases: The amount of GM's secured debt was relatively small compared to harmful effect, Chrysler's. The obvious conclusion, then, is that the difference in how the government treated the automakers' creditors was purely a matter of expediency hardly a justifiable rationale. The highly irregular bankruptcies and re-organizations of General Motors and Chrysler left the White House and by law an employer have, Congress with enormous power over the subsequent operations of harmful of smoking essay both companies. (This was especially true of GM, in which the government at first had a majority stake, and in which it still possesses about one-third of the common stock.) Some government interventions were relatively subtle the companies' increased emphasis on hybrids and electric vehicles, for instance, which are Obama-administration priorities but hardly sound economic choices for upenn essay troubled automakers. But other interventions were quite egregious especially those related to the automakers' decisions about closing dealerships. Because of state laws that are highly protective of effect of smoking auto dealers, terminating and compare and contrast, closing dealerships can be extremely difficult and expensive. It has been estimated, for example, that it cost General Motors more than $1 billion to harmful effect of smoking essay, close dealerships when it decided to terminate its Oldsmobile line in 2004. Bankruptcy provided the opportunity to does an employer, cut through this red tape by pre-empting those state laws, and effect of smoking essay, so offered the automakers a valuable chance to streamline which is, of course, the very purpose of bankruptcy re-organization. Unfortunately, the upenn supplement, automakers came up against the same force that produced those protective state laws in the first place: the auto-dealer lobby, which wields enormous political influence (especially in small towns and rural areas).

Indeed, in many congressional districts, auto dealers are among the most high-profile members of their communities; they sponsor Little League teams, support local charities, and host political fundraisers. Harmful Essay. It was therefore not surprising that Washington politicians were so aggressive in their efforts to reverse GM's decisions about dealership closures. Senator Amy Klobuchar, for instance, persuaded GM to rescind a closure order for compare essay fahrenheit 451 a large dealership in Bloomington, Minnesota. Arizona representative Gabrielle Giffords did the same to keep open a Cadillac dealership in her Tucson district. Senator Jay Rockefeller intervened to rescue a dealership in West Virginia, and Senator Charles Schumer and Representative Dan Maffei intervened to save a Cadillac dealership in Syracuse, New York. In addition to these ad hoc interventions, Congress passed a law in December 2009 giving terminated dealers special rights in seeking arbitration a process that has burdened GM with substantial delays and costs. According to an August 2010 report in Automotive News , of cases that had actually gone to arbitration, GM had won 39 and harmful effect of smoking essay, lost 23. Upenn 2013 Help. Furthermore, the company had entered into letters of intent for conditions for reinstatement with 702 other dealerships. Taken together, those dealers reinstated through arbitration and those offered reinstatement through letters of intent represented 62% of all the dealers that had filed claims for harmful effect essay arbitration.

In addition, GM had settled disputes with 408 dealers under undisclosed terms; according to lawyers for the dealers, however, the dealerships were usually terminated only Human, after GM paid case settlements settlements that, in harmful of smoking, some instances, reached as high as several million dollars. The result of the 2009 law has thus been an unimpressive arbitration record for resources management General Motors, and harmful of smoking, the retention of many more dealerships than sound business principles could justify. Such political pressures were exerted on fcc information behalf of suppliers, too. For instance, GM had for several years purchased the mineral palladium from a Montana mine; upon filing for bankruptcy, the company decided to replace the Montana distributor with cheaper suppliers in Russia and South Africa. But Montana's senators, Democrats Max Baucus and Jon Tester, prevailed upon GM to effect of smoking essay, abandon its plans and continue using the more expensive Montana supplier. Similarly, when GM announced plans to produce a new subcompact car in lord, China, immense pressure from Capitol Hill forced the company to reverse its decision. Arriving at more efficient dealership arrangements and more cost-effective relationships with suppliers was, of course, one of the chief reasons given for putting the automakers into bankruptcy. But these aims were seriously undercut by the meddling of elected officials. There is little doubt that General Motors and, in all probability, Chrysler too would have emerged stronger and more competitive had they pursued normal bankruptcies (perhaps with some help in obtaining financing), not massive bailouts followed by harmful effect essay bankruptcies run by management the government.

Every piece of the success story of the auto bailout would thus seem to be in error. The bailout was not absolutely necessary and harmful effect of smoking essay, was pursued by means of dubious legality; the upenn, bankruptcies were highly irregular and of smoking essay, inefficient; and the companies that have emerged from bankruptcy are far from lean and Human resources, fit. They are certainly in no position to repay taxpayers for the generous loans they were given. But as bad as the effect, facts of the upenn supplement help, story are, the implications are much worse. Through their actions, both the Bush and Obama administrations have set dangerous precedents and made it much more difficult to reverse the trends of effect essay executive overreach and excessive government entanglement with private business. As a matter of Human policy, the Bush interventions early in of smoking essay, the process were more ad hoc affairs, motivated largely by panic in of the and superego, the midst of the economic crisis. This was particularly true of Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, whose performance in the final months of the Bush administration was disgraceful. Harmful Effect Essay. But it is hard to avoid the conclusion that, at an employer have to provide paperwork, its core, the Bush approach was also influenced by the imperious view of executive power that had developed in harmful effect essay, the course of the of the and superego, war on terror and had been supported by some conservative thinkers for much of Bush's presidency. Harmful. The notion that the flies, president simply must do whatever he judges necessary in an emergency regardless of whether he has the formal legal authority to do it is among Bush's foremost legacies. The concluding months of his presidency should offer a cautionary tale to conservatives inclined to adopt that view of harmful of smoking essay executive power.

The Obama administration's role in this story, however, is an employer termination paperwork, far more troubling. Harmful Effect Essay. One cannot explain away Obama's overreach as a panicked response to an emergency; rather, his actions toward GM and Chrysler were part of a considered, coherent approach to the relationship between government and private industry. And this approach defined by broad government power unchecked by cold legal constraints and possessing sweeping authority to pick winners and losers has guided the administration's policies well beyond the auto bailout. The aim of this approach is to rejuvenate the New Deal vision of the harmful effect, regulatory state, in upenn essay 2013, which regulators are seen as disinterested experts with the of smoking essay, factual knowledge, practical wisdom, and unwavering integrity to upenn essay 2013, manage the essay, economy. Essay. They alone are presumed to be capable of steering the nation toward prosperity. It was this approach that clearly animated, for instance, the financial-reform legislation enacted by President Obama and the Democratic Congress last year. Just as the government was seen as having the wisdom to harmful essay, micromanage the restructuring of Chrysler and General Motors, so the new financial-reform law creates a vast web of regulatory bodies and fahrenheit, presumes that they will have the know-how to successfully reshape America's entire financial system. The same basic pattern can be seen in several of the harmful effect essay, Obama administration's other legislative achievements from the massive 2009 stimulus package to the health-care reform bill to a host of fcc information essay environmental regulatory initiatives. Taken together, these laws have dramatically worsened the entanglement of government and the private sector, and have thereby led to an increase in lobbying activity by special interests seeking government favors or protection.

The financial-reform law, for instance, is littered with special-interest provisions intended to entice major corporations into supporting the administration's new approach to economic policy. Auto-finance lenders are inexplicably exempted from the jurisdiction of one of the effect, law's new creations, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, thereby sparing them (and the influential auto dealers they work with) from the regulatory costs and hassles caused by the CFPB. The nation's biggest banks, too, ultimately came to fahrenheit, support the creation of the CFPB, as they recognized that its heavy regulatory burdens would be borne much more easily by large institutions which can more readily afford to hire lobbyists and lawyers to help navigate the law's complexities than by their smaller competitors. Other examples abound; among them, the harmful of smoking, most outrageous is cold, probably the sweeping health-care law enacted last year. The legislation had the support of America's major health insurers likely because the law made them the first suppliers in American history to see the federal government mandate the harmful effect of smoking, purchase of Human resources their product by effect every single citizen. The opposition of pharmaceutical manufacturers, too, was significantly dampened; presumably this had something to do with the administration's promises of increased market demand for their products.

Even the American Medical Association which should have been representing the interests of doctors, who will face enormous difficulties under the law rolled over, partly to obtain a repeal of rules that had limited certain Medicare reimbursements. Again and again, large corporate actors and other organizations have been willing to sell some freedom of fcc information essay action in return for a competitive advantage provided by the government. The Obama administration's economic policy, therefore, returns us to the thinking of the 1950s and effect essay, '60s to an economy in which big business, big labor, and big government are tied together in a relationship of mutual succor and support. The auto bailouts exemplify this new reality. Sold as a means of revitalizing the essay, economy, they are in fact a means of essay transforming the relationship between the state and the market in a way that empowers large players at the cost of economic growth. The overall effect of such state capitalism is a kind of controlled stasis, in which the preservation of old jobs takes priority over the creation of new ones. Fcc Information Essay. Managed decline, rather than dynamic growth, is the defining feature of the Obama economy. It is not hard to understand why those who embrace this vision of politics and economics would see the bailouts of Chrysler and General Motors as a great success story.

But their notion of success is a far cry from old-fashioned prosperity. The Obama administration's idea of harmful essay what is good for General Motors, much like its idea of what is good for and contrast fahrenheit America, is unlikely to essay, be particularly good for either. Todd Zywicki is the George Mason University Foundation Professor at the George Mason University School of Law and a senior scholar at Human, the Mercatus Center.

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Homework: An Unnecessary Evil? … Surprising Findings From New Research (##) Share this article. Essay? An unnecessary evil? … Surprising Findings From New Research. Cold? A brand-new study on essay, the academic effects of homework offers not only some intriguing results but also a lesson on how to read a study — and a reminder of the importance of doing just that: reading studies (carefully) rather than relying on summaries by journalists or even by the researchers themselves. Let’s start by reviewing what we know from earlier investigations.[1] First, no research has ever found a benefit to assigning homework (of any kind or in any amount) in elementary school. In fact, there isn’t even a positive correlation between, on the one hand, having younger children do some homework (vs. Fcc Information Essay? none), or more (vs. less), and, on effect, the other hand, any measure of upenn essay 2013 help, achievement. If we’re making 12-year-olds, much less five-year-olds, do homework, it’s either because we’re misinformed about what the evidence says or because we think kids ought to have to essay do homework despite what the evidence says. Second, even at the high school level, the lord flies and superego research supporting homework hasn’t been particularly persuasive. There does seem to be a correlation between homework and standardized test scores, but (a) it isn’t strong, meaning that homework doesn’t explain much of the variance in scores, (b) one prominent researcher, Timothy Keith, who did find a solid correlation, returned to the topic a decade later to harmful essay enter more variables into the equation simultaneously, only to discover that the compare and contrast essay fahrenheit 451 improved study showed that homework had no effect after all[2], and (c) at best we’re only talking about a correlation — things that go together — without having proved that doing more homework causes test scores to go up. (Take 10 seconds to see if you can come up with other variables that might be driving both of harmful, these things.) Third, when homework is related to essay 2013 help test scores, the connection tends to be strongest — or, actually, least tenuous — with math. If homework turns out to be unnecessary for students to succeed in that subject, it’s probably unnecessary everywhere. Essay? Along comes a new study, then, that focuses on essay 451, the neighborhood where you’d be most likely to find a positive effect if one was there to harmful of smoking be found: math and science homework in high school. Compare And Contrast Fahrenheit 451? Like most recent studies, this one by Adam Maltese and his colleagues[3] doesn’t provide rich descriptive analyses of what students and teachers are doing.

Rather, it offers an aerial view, the harmful effect kind preferred by economists, relying on two large datasets (from the by law an employer termination National Education Longitudinal Study [NELS] and the Education Longitudinal Study [ELS]). Thousands of students are asked one question — How much time do you spend on homework? — and statistical tests are then performed to discover if there’s a relationship between that number and how they fared in their classes and on standardized tests. It’s easy to miss one interesting result in this study that appears in a one-sentence aside. When kids in these two similar datasets were asked how much time they spent on math homework each day, those in the NELS study said 37 minutes, whereas those in harmful of smoking the ELS study said 60 minutes. There’s no good reason for such a striking discrepancy, nor do the authors offer any explanation. They just move right along — even though those estimates raise troubling questions about the paperwork whole project, and about all homework studies that are based on self-report. Which number is more accurate? Or are both of them way off? There’s no way of knowing.

And because all the conclusions are tied to that number, all the conclusions may be completely invalid.[4] But let’s pretend that we really do know how much homework students do. Did doing it make any difference? The Maltese et al. Of Smoking Essay? study looked at the effect on test scores and on of the flies id ego essay, grades. They emphasized the effect of smoking latter, but let’s get the cold letter former out essay of the fcc information essay way first. Was there a correlation between the harmful amount of homework that high school students reported doing and their scores on standardized math and science tests? Yes, and it was statistically significant but “very modest”: Even assuming the existence of a causal relationship, which is by no means clear, one or two hours’ worth of homework every day buys you two or three points on a test. Is that really worth the have to provide paperwork frustration, exhaustion, family conflict, loss of time for other activities, and effect potential diminution of cover, interest in learning? And how meaningful a measure were those tests in the first place, since, as the authors concede, they’re timed measures of mostly mechanical skills? (Thus, a headline that reads “Study finds homework boosts achievement” can be translated as “A relentless regimen of after-school drill-and-skill can raise scores a wee bit on tests of rote learning.”) But it was grades, not tests, that Maltese and his colleagues really cared about. They were proud of having looked at transcript data in effect of smoking essay order to figure out “the exact grade a student received in each class [that he or she] completed” so they could compare that to by law an employer to provide paperwork how much homework the student did.

Previous research has looked only at effect of smoking essay students’ overall grade-point averages. Compare Essay? And the result of this fine-tuned investigation? There was no relationship whatsoever between time spent on homework and course grade, and “no substantive difference in grades between students who complete homework and of smoking those who do not.” This result clearly caught the researchers off-guard. Frankly, it surprised me, too. Lord Of The Essay? When you measure “achievement” in terms of grades, you expect to harmful of smoking see a positive result — not because homework is academically beneficial but because the same teacher who gives the assignments evaluates the fcc information students who complete them, and the final grade is often based at least partly on harmful of smoking essay, whether, and to what extent, students did the homework.

Even if homework were a complete waste of compare 451, time, how could it not be positively related to course grades? And yet it wasn’t. Again. Even in high school. Even in math. The study zeroed in on specific course grades, which represents a methodological improvement, and the moral may be: The better the research, the less likely one is to find any benefits from homework. (That’s not a surprising proposition for harmful effect of smoking a careful reader of fcc information essay, reports in this field. We got a hint of that from Timothy Keith’s reanalysis and also from the fact that longer homework studies tend to find less of an effect.[5]) Maltese and his colleagues did their best to reframe these results to minimize the stunning implications.[6] Like others in this field, they seem to effect essay have approached the topic already convinced that homework is necessary and potentially beneficial, so the only question we should ask is How — not whether — to assign it. But if you read the results rather than just the authors’ spin on them — which you really need to do with the work of others working in this field as well[7] — you’ll find that there’s not much to prop up the belief that students must be made to work a second shift after they get home from school. The assumption that teachers are just assigning homework badly, that we’d start to see meaningful results if only lord essay it were improved, is harder and harmful effect of smoking essay harder to lord of the and superego essay justify with each study that’s published. Of Smoking? If experience is essay, any guide, however, many people will respond to harmful effect these results by repeating platitudes about the importance of practice[8], or by complaining that anyone who doesn’t think kids need homework is coddling them and failing to prepare them for by law to provide termination paperwork the “real world” (read: the pointless tasks they’ll be forced to do after they leave school). Those open to evidence, however, have been presented this fall with yet another finding that fails to find any meaningful benefit even when the study is set up to give homework every benefit of the doubt.

1. It’s important to remember that some people object to homework for harmful of smoking reasons that aren’t related to fcc information essay the dispute about whether research might show that homework provides academic benefits. They argue that (a) six hours a day of academics are enough, and kids should have the chance after school to explore other interests and of smoking essay develop in cold cover letter other ways — or be able simply to of smoking relax in resources management the same way that most adults like to relax after work; and (b) the decision about what kids do during family time should be made by families, not schools. Let’s put these arguments aside for harmful effect of smoking now, even though they ought to be (but rarely are) included in any discussion of the topic. 2. Valerie A. Cool and Timothy Z. Keith, “Testing a Model of School Learning: Direct and Indirect Effects on Academic Achievement,” Contemporary Educational Psychology 16 (1991): 28-44. 3. Adam V. Maltese, Robert H. Tai, and Xitao Fan, “When Is Homework Worth the Time? Evaluating the Association Between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Math,” The High School Journal , October/November 2012: 52-72. Abstract at does an employer have termination paperwork http://ow.ly/fxhOV. 4. Other research has found little or no correlation between how much homework students report doing and how much homework their parents say they do. Harmful Effect Essay? When you use the parents’ estimates, the correlation between homework and upenn 2013 achievement disappears. See Harris Cooper, Jorgianne Civey Robinson, and Erika A. Patall, “Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?: A Synthesis of Research, 1987-2003,” Review of essay, Educational Research 76 (2006): 1-62.

5. To put it the other way around, studies finding the biggest effect are those that capture less of cover, what goes on effect of smoking essay, in the real world by virtue of being so brief. View a small, unrepresentative slice of a child’s life and it may appear that homework makes a contribution to achievement; keep watching, and that contribution is upenn, eventually revealed to be illusory. See data provided — but not interpreted this way — by harmful effect, Cooper, The Battle Over Homework, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2001). 6. Even the title of their article reflects this: They ask “When Is Homework Worth the Time?” rather than “ Is Homework Worth the Time?” This bias might seem a bit surprising in the case of the study’s second author, Robert H. Tai. He had contributed earlier to another study whose results similarly ended up raising questions about the value of homework. Students enrolled in college physics courses were surveyed to determine whether any features of their high school physics courses were now of use to Human resources management them. At first a very small relationship was found between the amount of homework that students had had in effect essay high school and how well they were currently faring.

But once the researchers controlled for other variables, such as the type of classes they had taken, that relationship disappeared, just as it had for Keith (see note 2). The researchers then studied a much larger population of students in to provide college science classes – and found the same thing: Homework simply didn’t help. See Philip M. Sadler and Robert H. Harmful Effect Of Smoking Essay? Tai, “Success in Introductory College Physics: The Role of High School Preparation,” Science Education 85 [2001]: 111-36.

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Editor registr pouzivejte pouze na vlastni riziko. Abyste mohli registr Windows opravit rucne, nejdriv si vytvorte zalohu tak, ze exportujete cast registru souvisejiciho s calibrizeresume.exe (napr. Fcc Information? Calibrize): Kliknete na tlacitko Start . Harmful Effect Of Smoking? Do vyhledavaciho okenka napiste command . Compare Essay Fahrenheit? Zatim NESTLACEJTE ENTER ! Podrzte na klavesnici CTRL-Shift a zaroven stisknete ENTER . Harmful Effect? Budete vyzvani povolovacim dialogovym oknem. Upenn Supplement Essay? Kliknete na Ano . Harmful? Otevre se cerna skrinka spolu s blikajicim kurzorem.

Napiste regedit a stisknete ENTER . Letter? V Editoru registru vyberte klic souvisejici s calibrizeresume.exe (napr. Effect Of Smoking? Calibrize), ktery chcete zalohovat. Essay 451? Z Menu se soubory vyberte Export . Harmful Effect? V seznamu Ulozit do vyberte slozku, kam chcete ulozit klic k zaloze Calibrize. Human Resources Management? Do okenka Nazev souboru napiste nazev zalohovaneho souboru, napr. Harmful Of Smoking Essay? Zaloha Calibrize. Human Resources Management? U policka Rozsah exportu se ujistete, ze jste vybrali Vybrana vetev . Harmful? Kliknete na Ulozit . 451? Soubor byl ulozen se souborovou priponou .reg . Harmful Of Smoking Essay? Prave jste vytvorili zalohu polozky registru souvisejiciho s calibrizeresume.exe.

Tento clanek nevysvetluje dalsi kroky tykajici se rucni upravy vasich registru, jelikoz exitruje vysoke riziko, ze by fcc information essay mohlo dojit k poskozeni vaseho systemu. Of Smoking Essay? Pokud byste se chteli o rucni uprave registru dozvedet vice, podivejte se prosim na nize uvedene odkazy. Neneseme zadnou odpovednost za vysledky cinnosti provedene na zaklade obsahu odkazu uvedenych nize - dokonceni techto ukolu je na vlastni nebezpeci. Krok 2: Provest celkovou kontrolu vaseho PC kvuli skodlivemu softwaru. Muze se stat, ze chyba s calibrizeresume.exe bude souviset s napadenim vaseho pocitace skodlivym softwarem. By Law An Employer Termination? Skodlivi vetrelci mohou narusit, poskodit nebo dokonce vymazat soubory spojene s EXE. Essay? A navic zde existuje riziko, ze chyba calibrizeresume.exe, ktera se u vas vyskytla, souvisi s komponentem spojenym se samotnym skodlivym programem. Tip: Pokud jste si jeste nenainstalovali ochranny progarm proti skodlivemu softwaru, doporucujeme pouzit Emsisoft Anti-Malware (stahnout zde). Essay 2013? Poskytuji zaruku na odstraneni skodliveho softwaru, ktera nenabizi zadna jina spolecnost. Krok 3: Vycistete nevyzadane (docasne soubory a slozky) ve vasem systemu pomoci Vycisteni disku (cleanmgr) V prubehu casu se ve vasem pocitaci nahromadi nechtene soubory z bezneho surfovani po internetu a pouzivani pocitace.

Pokud dane nechtene soubory z casu na cas nevymazete, mohou zpusobit, ze Calibrize bude reagovat zpomalene nebo vyhodi chybovou zpravu calibrizeresume.exe v dusledku moznych konfliktu mezi soubory nebo pretezeneho hard disku. Effect Essay? Vycisteni techto docasnych souboru pomoci Vycisteni disku vam muze nejenom pomoci vyresit problem s calibrizeresume.exe , ale rovnez muze vyrazne urychlit praci vaseho PC. Tip: I kdyz je Vycisteni disku skvely nastroj, nevycisti uplne vsechny docasne soubory na vasem pocitaci. Compare Essay Fahrenheit? Pomoci Vycisteni disku nelze vycistit mnohe dalsi programy, ktere casto pouzivate jako Microsoft Office, Firefox, Chrome, Live Messenger a stovky dalsich programu (vcetne nekterych programu Eberhard Werle). Kvuli nedostatkum nastroje Windows Vycisteni disku (cleanmgr), vam pro harmful effect of smoking vycisteni celeho pocitace vrele doporucujeme pouzit specializovany software na vycisteni hard disku / ochranu soukromi, jako WinSweeper (vyvinuty spolecnosti Microsoft Gold Partner). Test WinSweeper jednou denne (pomoci automaticke kontroly) zajisti, ze vas pocitac bude vzdy cisty, rychly a bez chyb calibrizeresume.exe souvisejicich s docasnymi soubory.

Jak spustit Vycisteni disku (cleanmgr) (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 a 10 ): Kliknete na tlacitko Start . 2013? Do vyhledavaciho okenka napiste command . Of Smoking? Zatim NESTLACEJTE ENTER ! Podrzte na klavesnici CTRL-Shift a zaroven stisknete ENTER . Upenn Help? Budete vyzvani povolovacim dialogovym oknem. Harmful Effect Essay? Kliknete na Ano . Of The Essay? Otevre se cerna skrinka spolu s blikajicim kurzorem. Harmful Essay? Napiste cleanmgr a stisknete ENTER . Cold Cover Letter? Vycisteni disku zacina vyhodnocovat, kolik mista na disku muzete vycistenim ziskat. Harmful? V dialogovem oknu Vycisteni disku se objevi nekolik zaskrtavacich policek, z kterych si muzete vybrat. Human Resources? Ve vetsine pripadu kategorie Docasne soubory zabere na disku nejvice mista. Harmful Of Smoking? Zaskrtnete policka kategorii, ktere chcete smazat, a kliknete na OK . Krok 4: Aktualizujte ovladace zarizeni na PC.

Chyby Calibrizeresume.exe mohou souviset s poskozenim nebo neaktualnosti ovladacu zarizeni. Lord Flies Id Ego And Superego Essay? Ovladace mohou jeden den fungovat zcela bez problemu a druhy den z ruznych duvodu z niceho nic vypadnout. Of Smoking? Dobrou zpravou je, ze ovladac zarizeni muzete vzdy aktualizovat, abyste problem EXE vyresili. Z duvodu casove narocnosti a komplexnosti potrebnych k aktualizaci ovladacu, vyrazne doporucujeme pouzit nastroj na aktualizaci ovladacu jako DriverDoc (vyvinuty partnerem Microsoft Gold) pro by law an employer have termination automatizaci celeho procesu. Poznamka: Vas calibrizeresume.exe nemusi souviset s problemy s pevnym diskem, ale vzdy stoji za to harmful effect, zajistit, aby vsechny vase ovladace pocitacovych zarizeni byly aktualizovany a maximalizovat tim vykon PC. Krok 5: Pro Vraceni akce zpet u nedavno ucinenych systemovych zmen pouzijte Obnovu systemu Windows. Obnova systemu Windows Vam umozni posunout vas pocitac do minulosti a pomuze vam napravit problemy s calibrizeresume.exe. Essay Fahrenheit 451? Obnova pocitace vrati systemove soubory a programy PC zpatky do doby, kdy vsechno fungovalo spravne.

To muze zabranit Vasim bolestem hlavy po te, co byste dlouhe hodiny stravili resenim problemu souvisejicich s chybami EXE. Poznamka: Pouziti Obnovy systemu neohrozi vase dokumenty, obrazky ani dalsi data. Pouzijte Obnovu systemu (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 a 10) : Kliknete na tlacitko Start . Harmful Effect Essay? Do vyhledavaciho okenka napiste Obnova systemu a stisknete ENTER . Cold Cover? Ve vysledcich kliknete na Obnoveni systemu . Of Smoking Essay? Zadejte vsechna hesla spravce (pokud se zobrazi vyzva). By Law Does An Employer Have To Provide? Postupujte podle kroku v Pruvodci , abyste mohli stanovit bod obnovy. Harmful Effect Essay? Restartujte svuj pocitac.

Krok 6: Odinstalujte a znovu nainstalujte Calibrize program spojeny s Calibrizeresume.exe. Pokyny pro 451 Windows 7 a Windows Vista: Kliknete na tlacitko Start a otevrete Programy a funkce. Harmful Of Smoking Essay? Kliknete na Ovladaci panel na prave strane nabidky. Upenn Supplement Help? Kliknete na Programy . Harmful Effect Of Smoking Essay? Kliknete na Programy a funkce . Lord Of The Flies? Ve sloupci Nazev najdete Calibrize . Effect Essay? Kliknete na polozku Calibrize . Upenn Essay 2013? Kliknete na tlacitko Odinstalovat na hornim pasu nabidky. Effect Of Smoking Essay? Pro dokonceni odinstalovani programu Calibrize postupujte podle pokynu na obrazovce. Pokyny pro cold Windows XP: Kliknete na tlacitko Start a otevrete Programy a funkce. Of Smoking Essay? Kliknete na Ovladaci panel . Cold? Kliknete na Pridat nebo odebrat programy . Harmful Of Smoking Essay? Najdete Calibrize v seznamu Aktualne nainstalovane programy . Upenn Essay? Kliknete na polozku Calibrize . Of Smoking? Kliknete na tlacitko Odstranit na prave strane.

Pro dokonceni odinstalovani programu Calibrize postupujte podle pokynu na obrazovce. Pokyny pro an employer have to provide paperwork Windows 8: Prejedte kurzorem pres levou dolni cast obrazovky a vytvorte obraz Menu Start . Harmful Of Smoking Essay? Kliknete pravym tlacitkem a vyvolejte tak Kontextovou nabidku Start . Upenn Supplement Help? Kliknete na Programy a funkce . Effect Of Smoking Essay? Ve sloupci Nazev najdete Calibrize . An Employer Have To Provide Termination? Kliknete na polozku Calibrize . Effect? Kliknete na Odinstalovat/Zmenit na hornim pasu nabidky. By Law An Employer Have To Provide Paperwork? Pro dokonceni odinstalovani programu Calibrize postupujte podle pokynu na obrazovce. Pokud jste uspesne odinstalovali program propojeny s calibrizeresume.exe (napr. Harmful Effect? Calibrize), opetovne jej nainstalujte podle pokynu Eberhard Werle. Tip: Pokud vite, ze chyby EXE sousvisi s konkretnim programem Eberhard Werle, pravdepodobnym resenim vaseho problemu bude odinstalovani a preinstalovani programu spojeneho s calibrizeresume.exe. Krok 7: Spustit Kontrolu systemovych souboru Windows (sfc /scannow) Kontrola systemovych souboru je uzitecny nastroj, zahrnuty primo ve Windowsu, ktery vam umozni vyhledat a obnovit poskozene soubory systemu Windows (vcetne tech, jez souvisi s calibrizeresume.exe). Does Have To Provide Termination? Pokud Kontrola systemovych souboru zjisti problem s EXE anebo jinym klicovym systemovym souborem, problematicky soubor se automaticky pokusi nahradit.

Pro spusteni Kontroly systemovych souboru ( Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 a 10 ): Kliknete na tlacitko Start . Harmful Effect? Do vyhledavaciho okenka napiste command . Fahrenheit 451? Zatim NESTLACEJTE ENTER ! Podrzte na klavesnici CTRL-Shift a zaroven stisknete ENTER . Essay? Budete vyzvani povolovacim dialogovym oknem. By Law? Kliknete na Ano . Harmful Of Smoking? Otevre se cerna skrinka spolu s blikajicim kurzorem. And Contrast Fahrenheit 451? Napiste sfc /zkontrolovatted a stisknete ENTER . Of Smoking? Kontrola systemovych souboru zacne s kontrolou calibrizeresume.exe a dalsich problemu se systemovymi soubory (budte trpelivi - kontrola systemu muzete chvili trvat). Upenn Help? Postupujte podle prikazu na obrazovce. Krok 8: Nainstalovat vsechny dostupne aktualizace Windows.

Microsoft neustale aktualizuje a zlepsuje systemove soubory Windowsu, co muze byt spojeno s calibrizeresume.exe. Effect Of Smoking Essay? Nekdy muzete sve problemy s EXE vyresit snadno stazenim aktualizace nejnovejsiho Service Packu od Windows nebo obdobneho pravidelne vydavaneho balicku od Microsoftu. Pro vyhledani Aktualizaci Windowsu (Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 a 10 ): Kliknete na tlacitko Start . Upenn 2013? Do vyhledavaciho okenka napiste aktualizovat a stisknete ENTER . Effect? Zobrazi se dialogove okno Aktualizace Windowsu . Lord Of The Flies Id Ego Essay? Pokud jsou k dispozici aktualizace, kliknete na tlacitko Instalovat aktualizace . Krok 9: Provest cistou instalaci Windows. Upozorneni: Musime zduraznit, ze preinstalovani Windowsu je casove narocnym a pokrocilym ukolem v pripade reseni problemu s calibrizeresume.exe. Harmful Effect? Pokud se chcete vyhnout ztrate dat, musite si byt jisti, ze jste pred zahajenim procesu zalohovali vsechny dulezite dokumenty, obrazky, instalace softwaru a dalsi osobni data. Essay 2013 Help? Pokud si v soucasne dobe data nezalohujete, meli byste tak okamzite ucinit (stahnete si vrele doporucovane reseni pro effect of smoking essay zalohovani), abyste se ochranili pred ztratou dat.

Poznamka: Pokud cyhby calibrizeresume.exe pretrvavaji i po ciste instalaci Windows, vas problem EXE MUSI souviset s hardwarem. Cover? V pripade teto priciny budete pravdepodobne muset nahradit prislusny hardware zpusobujici chybu calibrizeresume.exe. Chybove zpravy Calibrizeresume.exe se mouhou objevit v kteremkoli z nasledujicich operacnich systemu Microsoft Windows: Jeste stale mate problemy s Calibrizeresume.exe? Potrebujete-li dalsi pomoc, muzete nas kdykoli kontaktovat prostrednictvim socialnich medii: Clanek autora: Jay Geater je prezident a CEO spolecnosti Solvusoft Corporation, coz globalni softwarova spolecnost zamerena na poskytovani inovativniho softwaroveho nastroje. Harmful Effect? Je to by law, celozivotni pocitacovy nadsenec a miluje vse, co souvisi s pocitaci, softwarem, a novou technologii. Prohledavat soubory EXE v abecednim poradi: Solvusoft Corporation 2011-2017. Essay? All Rights Reserved. Solvusoft: drzitel oznaceni Microsoft Gold Certified.

Spolecnost uznavana pro lord flies and superego sve nejlepsi schopnosti v oboru nezavislych prodejcu software (Independent Software Vendor, ISV) Spolecnost Microsoft uznava Solvusoft jako jednoho z prednich nezavislych prodejcu software, ktery dosahl nejvyssi urovne kompetence a excelence v oboru vyvoje software. Harmful Of Smoking Essay? Tesna spoluprace firmy Solvusoft se spolecnosti Microsoft v ramci jeji pozice Gold Certified Partner nam umoznuje poskytovat nejlepsi softwarova reseni optimalizovana pro resources vykon na operacnich systemech Windows. Jak spolecnosti dosahuji kompetencniho stupne Gold? Aby Solvusoft dosahl kompetencni urovne Gold, musel se podrobit rozsahle nezavisle analyze, ktera se mimo jine kvality zamerovala na jeho vysokou odbornost v oboru software, historii uspesneho poskytovani sluzeb zakaznikum, a spickovou hodnotu z pohledu zakaznika.

Jakozto nezavisly prodejce software (ISV) nesouci oznaceni Gold Certified je spolecnost Solvusoft schopna poskytovat zakaznikum nejvyssi uroven naplneni jejich potreb tim, ze software a provozni reseni, ktera dodava, maji spickovou uroven a byly podrobeny rigoroznimu a pravidelne auditovanemu procesu schvalovani ze strany spolecnosti Microsoft.

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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the of smoking, alternative to coursework paper that is compare essay fahrenheit 451, worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. Effect? The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on Human resources, the examination paper, most questions are short in harmful length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills. Cold Cover? The questions usually focus on harmful essay, coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the management, course. Possible topics and areas of study may include:

Changes in effect of smoking river velocity from source to fcc information essay mouth Changes in load (shape and size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in discharge from source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from of smoking essay source to fcc information mouth Changes in of smoking valley size and gradient from source to Human resources management mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in harmful effect of smoking pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in by law does an employer paperwork defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to effect of smoking Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in lord wealth or population density (will have to effect essay use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of supplement essay 2013 settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and of smoking essay wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on cold cover letter, rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to effect of smoking essay yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe.

For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight. Specification: Formulating aims and essay hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. Harmful Effect? ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to compare and contrast essay fahrenheit the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the effect of smoking, sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results.

The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and upenn help bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only harmful effect essay includes data that is relevant to have termination your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data It is hard to harmful of smoking study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in harmful essay a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures.

Quantitative data is very easy to by law have termination present and analyse. Harmful Effect Of Smoking Essay? Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Upenn Help? Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. Harmful Effect Essay? It is very simple to understand and by law have to provide termination carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is harmful effect of smoking, some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to by law does an employer have fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female.

Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to harmful effect ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in upenn essay 2013 help a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of effect essay those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and of the flies and superego what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the harmful essay, questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is management, unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and harmful the school - be polite Remember people don't have to supplement essay 2013 help answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. Essay? age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to fcc information essay your research Respondents may not understand the effect of smoking, question and of the id ego and superego essay give you an harmful of smoking irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables.

All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on essay, the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of of smoking using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in compare essay fahrenheit an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations.

It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. Harmful Effect Essay? You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. Essay? pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of effect essay pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the have to provide termination, count (i.e. time, date, location and effect essay name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to upenn essay help measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Harmful Essay? Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is upenn essay help, basically a line a long which you take measurements.

You may have a transect that runs from the harmful of smoking, rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the management, following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and effect an explanation of its use.

Instead of writing a methodology in lord flies your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for effect of smoking doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in fcc information essay both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for harmful effect of smoking counting because this is easy and quick At the end of 10 minutes count up the totals for cold each type of vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in harmful of smoking essay more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the by law does an employer have, week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the harmful effect essay, illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to cold cover understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies.

Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to harmful effect essay see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and Human resources management tables of results. Effect Essay? Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is resources management, often required in the interpretation of the data. Effect Essay? Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and Human correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the harmful effect essay, original hypothesis or aims of the cold cover letter, assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and of smoking a critical evaluation of the does an employer have termination paperwork, chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to of smoking essay theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future.

If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. Lord Of The Essay? bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. Harmful Of Smoking? secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.