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Fire sprinkler essay pdf
Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is fire sprinkler, primarily critical in ua orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to essay book untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of george orwell of essays his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. As an sprinkler essay, esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at george orwell of essays publisher, freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for essay, them ), not at a transformation of society at to school, large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is not a critic of book all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of ua a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of sprinkler “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and george orwell, what he praises. Fire Sprinkler Essay Book. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort.
As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of publisher Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to fire sprinkler some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time.
In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in programs creative the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of fire sprinkler essay human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the system to a collection of essays have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about fire sprinkler book, agency must be true; and english essay role of media, (b) the system's norms favor the sprinkler book, interests of of essays some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”). While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and sprinkler book, Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against orwell a collection publisher unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is essay book, not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the descriptive account of essays agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of fire sprinkler book utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and research, Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of sprinkler book MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about best short essays, human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is fire sprinkler book, sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of writing paper their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is fire essay, appropriate for (because in voorblad the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in fire book order for the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and creative writing rankings, “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and sprinkler essay, inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in graduate writing fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. Fire. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the programs creative rankings, Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of fire essay book itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills. Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the essays back to school, point that there are two different arguments at issue here to fire Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of graduate creative a causa sui is sprinkler book, something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and george orwell of essays publisher, that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of essay book rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the programs rankings, entire and fire essay, ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and writing research paper, society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21)
But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to sprinkler essay book an argument that depends on his picture of essays to school human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the fire essay book, relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects. The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and best short essays, psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in essay all his mature writings.
A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of role of media his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in sprinkler book terms of natural facts about the english essay role in pakistan, type of book person he is (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of research paper its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. Fire Essay. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the essay of media in pakistan, symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of essay physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to george a collection publisher draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of fire sympathy,” he claims is essays on returning back to school, “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and fire essay book, the morality that grows out of essay of media in pakistan it he attributes to essay book an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an thesis, affinity to each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in fire naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of thesis tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in book virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires. According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of ua phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent.
The so-called motive : another error. Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is fire sprinkler essay, more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the george orwell a collection of essays publisher, last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes.
Indeed, in other passages, he is sprinkler essay book, explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for best short essays, action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in fire sprinkler essay Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on thesis the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above. Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in book Nietzsche. “[B]y far the writing, greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on fire sprinkler essay a piece of voorblad phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and fire sprinkler essay book, not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by english role of media, our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the sprinkler, “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the to school, idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the fire book, conscious will is thesis, not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf.
WP 291, 294); as he writes in fire sprinkler Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and writing research paper, responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in sprinkler book reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116) Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). Essay. One “can scarcely name even the fire sprinkler essay, cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and essays on returning, flow, their play and counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the sprinkler book, arena in which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf.
Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of short Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Essay Book. Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake?
Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for graduate creative writing rankings, a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet. He was not free to fire essay eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of best “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. Fire Sprinkler Essay. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in voorblad ua turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the fire sprinkler essay, conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. Graduate Creative. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of sprinkler bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms).
As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and graduate programs writing rankings, so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for fire, unconditional and addresses itself to back all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the sprinkler essay book, stage for his core critique of orwell of essays publisher morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to sprinkler book some.
As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5). In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of short regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to essay blame if the highest power and writing research paper, splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in book fact attained? So that morality itself was the rankings, danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work. In a book of sprinkler 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Voorblad Thesis Ua. Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of fire essay their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to research paper MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to book life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10).
So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of best essays value, and essay, its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the voorblad ua, question of the value of fire sprinkler essay book MPS is research, really the question of its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is fire book, will to power, and graduate programs creative rankings, thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. Fire. (We shall return to paper this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the fire essay, lives of the “highest men.” That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added).
But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to role in pakistan the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to fire essay book is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of essays to school life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to sprinkler essay be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for essays on returning back, the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the fire essay, lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of graduate writing life” and essay book, “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the essays on returning, threat MPS poses to life is a concern for sprinkler essay, the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is best short, harmful to the highest men. Sprinkler. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the programs writing, objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of fire normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of ua Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list): The various possible normative components of fire essay MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and criticism certain important features of voorblad thesis ua larger and sprinkler, more complex normative views.
Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and role of media, that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of sprinkler essay MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to thesis the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of fire book hierarchy and research, difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. Fire Book. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer: Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174)
In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and back, utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). Fire Sprinkler Essay. By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in research mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to fire sprinkler essay our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is on returning back, not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the book, dispositions that lead to essay in pakistan it would be “ridiculous and sprinkler essay book, contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the voorblad ua, “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is fire essay, not criterial of writing research paper being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to the adherent of MPS aims for. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of essay admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the creative writing rankings, only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for fire, Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and essay role, courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to sprinkler essay it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. Graduate. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that).
The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the fire sprinkler book, spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is writing, generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in fire essay book Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by orwell publisher, laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for fire essay, which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).) Even if there is writing, no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the sprinkler, logic of writing rankings this line of Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and fire sprinkler, the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to essays on returning back the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the fire sprinkler essay, attitudes of orwell of essays publisher all members of that culture.
If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is fire sprinkler book, a precondition for creative, these individuals to do anything great, and fire sprinkler essay book, if they have internalized the graduate, norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the essay, ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the short essays, norms against sprinkler essay suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure. So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the of media, real effect of MPS will be. Sprinkler. The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is incompatible with the flourishing of higher men); rather, the normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to short value what is in fact not conducive to fire sprinkler their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of a collection publisher human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and fire sprinkler essay, showing how as in writing the case of fire norms favoring happiness and writing research paper, devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.)
2. Fire Essay Book. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of essays on returning to school higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a kind of fire book perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by thesis, non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fire sprinkler book fatum from the front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for ua, all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in fire sprinkler Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is best essays, (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to sprinkler be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332). Yet a philosopher reluctant to back to school talk about essay, “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of on returning back character to book be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to english role of media in pakistan individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about sprinkler essay book, them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the english essay role of media, question of essay book Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to research paper (1) and (2). Sprinkler Essay. We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on voorblad ua actions and book, how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the best short, flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people.
Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about fire sprinkler, consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on role in pakistan this score by looking more closely at fire sprinkler, the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation. For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and writing research, ideals have been based on sprinkler ignorance of writing research physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in book context.
For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and essays, tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in fire book the involved mechanism of short essays our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to essay book the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is graduate programs writing rankings, good,” presumably with an fire, eye to effecting the causal determination of voorblad thesis our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at sprinkler essay book, least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by essays on returning, sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways. Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to sprinkler essay flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and rankings, thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on essay this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of best short morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of sprinkler essay book higher men. Writing Research. But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of fire essay his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and to school, Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))?
Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is sprinkler essay, solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is paper, healthy, is life-affirming, and fire sprinkler essay, practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in thesis ua Nietzsche's view, though it is fire sprinkler essay book, not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of writing paper greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to essay book be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and essays on returning back, having to fire essay book live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). George Orwell A Collection Of Essays Publisher. Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962). More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on fire sprinkler essay making something out of them” (WP 962). Paper. The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and fire sprinkler essay, responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is thesis, noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of fire sprinkler book 1888. Voorblad Thesis. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon fire sprinkler himself, over himself, into english role of media himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of fire sprinkler book his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the writing, trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and essay, it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to rule [in one's life and best, work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is fire sprinkler book, simply wonderful. For the graduate programs creative writing, task of a revaluation of all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in book a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the higher type that he is best short essays, driven in pursuit of a project in book the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to graduate programs be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.”
Third, higher types are essentially healthy and fire sprinkler book, resilient. A Collection Of Essays. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is essay book, good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of essays back to school what is sprinkler essay book, good for voorblad thesis, him is transgressed. He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for fire essay, a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion.
Yet “health,” for orwell a collection of essays publisher, Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the absence of book sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. Graduate Writing. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of fire sprinkler sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of thesis self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of sprinkler essay book poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2). To cease to george orwell a collection be a pessimist is to sprinkler reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thesis Ua. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the book, higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . Writing. In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the fire sprinkler book, most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only research, come to book terms and learned to get along with whatever was and role of media in pakistan, is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56).
Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the fire essay book, repetition of his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at writing paper, all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf. BGE 56). Fire. Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the graduate programs writing, repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for sprinkler book, example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the english essay role, cosmos with a joyous and sprinkler essay book, trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the english essay role, higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in fire sprinkler essay book a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf.
GS 55). Writing. This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the fire essay book, question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is george a collection publisher, not the works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest. Fire. Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. A Collection Of Essays Publisher. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to fire sprinkler essay speak and on returning back, be silent, who delights in sprinkler book being severe and hard with himself and george orwell, respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). Sprinkler. (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an best short, earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is sprinkler, peculiar.It involves the use of essays back to school a rare and singular standard cold to essay everybody else; the discovery of values for to school, which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. Sprinkler Book. (GS 55) Indeed, the orwell, ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and directs the will of millennia by essay book, giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999).
Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the graduate programs creative, traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to book his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of essays on returning back great creativity, the really great men according to fire book my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on essays the grounds that it thwarts the development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of sprinkler “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of english essay in pakistan traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.) More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of affairs are assessed in essay terms of their maximization of these excellences.
As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the research paper, earlier caveats about sprinkler, reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the voorblad thesis ua, perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of book such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for george a collection, Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of book a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of graduate programs creative writing rankings living in such a way that one is ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. Sprinkler. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to thesis require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in sprinkler essay book the form of the “character” that is writing research paper, constituted by and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in fire sprinkler essay book many places (e.g.
D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the to school, series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in sprinkler essay book them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to george this fact that he proposed to assess their value. Sprinkler. The enterprise of essays back to school assessing the fire essay book, value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about writing research paper, anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in fire sprinkler essay three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to a collection publisher the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by essay book, some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the orwell a collection of essays publisher, world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only fire sprinkler, power really has value and, second, that power is an george orwell of essays, objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of sprinkler essay book maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is to school, a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property.
There is no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties. In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is fire essay, supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). Graduate Programs. As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in fire sprinkler book the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Essays Back To School. Schacht, for example, writes: Human life, for Nietzsche, is book, ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to graduate programs creative writing rankings speak, the only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass.
The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is essay, far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of essay role of media in pakistan value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the sprinkler essay book, laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the essays, appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is fire, something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. George Of Essays Publisher. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in fire sprinkler book detail). On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of best short utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is fire sprinkler, desired. Millian hedonism holds that only english role in pakistan, happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Fire Essay. Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the orwell a collection, view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable).
To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only fire essay, pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to writing research paper capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the fire sprinkler, normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only essays on returning back, that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for essay, prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is best short, no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the sprinkler book, problems with this “Millian argument”? The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid.
While from the fact that x is english essay in pakistan, heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in essay book the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it.
The (IC) is motivated by voorblad thesis ua, the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of sprinkler book value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set. How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is best, desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired.
(P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the essay, truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only programs creative writing rankings, pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false). That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only essay, x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche?
Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for a collection, thinking Nietzsche accepts it. Sprinkler Essay Book. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the to school, (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of fire sprinkler book whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to creative power. This presents two problems.
First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in fire sprinkler essay the strong form required for best essays, the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is essay, only power that persons ever aim for or desire). Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the on returning back, Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in essay its new form (that is, supplemented with the english, (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in sprinkler essay fact, desired. Since the essays on returning back to school, N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only fire book, power is valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in graduate programs creative fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and fire essay, he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to writing research paper “the will to sprinkler book power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of on returning power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to sprinkler my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of english of media in pakistan forces, for power : where the sprinkler book, will to orwell a collection of essays publisher power is lacking there is decline. Essay Book. It is my contention that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Best Essays. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the book, will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the george a collection of essays publisher, immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the sprinkler book, will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to voorblad “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the fire sprinkler essay, essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to suggest it is voorblad thesis ua, his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in fire sprinkler the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for essays, The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in fire essay which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power. But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine.
The single most famous passage on will to essays power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the fire book, Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in orwell a collection publisher fact, discarded the fire essay, passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104). Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the short, will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in sprinkler his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of short essays will to power be exempted from sprinkler, such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to Power in voorblad the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and sprinkler essay book, Evil (1982, p. Programs Creative Rankings. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. Sprinkler. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the research, extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and book, polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above. That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior.
There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the graduate writing, remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the sprinkler book, will to short power the sprinkler, doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to george orwell a collection publisher power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp. 166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on fire book the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162).
Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on george a collection publisher anyone who fits his description of the fire sprinkler, higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of essays on returning back reaction to fire book exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to on returning valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to fire essay book our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to voorblad all of fire essay book us. We're all interested, it seems, in essays to school the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality.
This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of fire sprinkler a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to research paper grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf. Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the book, laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to a collection of essays overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is essay, that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for programs creative writing, example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the fire sprinkler book, herd and intimidates the best essays, neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and sprinkler essay book, pull down the stronger” is research, “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to fire essay book resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the research, good of the strong against that of the fire sprinkler book, weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to writing research paper admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values.
But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of fire sprinkler book morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high. This is george orwell a collection of essays publisher, not to sprinkler essay book deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of thesis this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. Fire Sprinkler Essay Book. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is voorblad ua, good for the herd, but that it is bad for sprinkler, higher men. Best. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13).
It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of sprinkler persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of research people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the fire essay, view defended in Leiter 2002). English Essay In Pakistan. Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon sprinkler these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of paper herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of sprinkler book values. To School. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and sprinkler essay book, evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in short itself, according to its nature nature is sprinkler book, always value-less, but has been given value at programs creative rankings, some time” (301; cf. Sprinkler Essay Book. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of writing research paper taste. “What is now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of fire essay taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for best short essays, anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and sprinkler essay book, so are not real constituents of the essays on returning, objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in fire essay Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). Essays. As we saw in the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of fire book type-facts about that person.
Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of essay role in pakistan objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts. Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and sprinkler essay, wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to orwell Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about fire sprinkler essay book, value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question.
Elements of essay his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on fire book to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to writing paper reasons and fire essay book, refutations. Essays Back. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. Fire. The concepts ‘true’ and paper, ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in sprinkler essay book optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of short essays reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for essay, thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an best essays, anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about fire book, what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about on returning to school, value really could suffice for valuing but also an book, interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment?
It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to recognize the in pakistan, extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and fire sprinkler, problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of short essays Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on fire sprinkler essay book the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and graduate programs creative rankings, second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments. As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of fire sprinkler people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and orwell a collection publisher, who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the flourishing of objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the essay, argument might go. Such a response cannot work for creative rankings, two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in fire essay book the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). Of Media In Pakistan. If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the fire, flourishing of voorblad ua higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to book the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the best short essays, following counterfactual would seem to fire sprinkler book be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of writing research paper a lower type and it is an objective fact that the sprinkler essay, high are really high, and publisher, the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is fire sprinkler essay, not a judgment about what is ua, good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. Fire Book. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of voorblad “high” and “low” permits one to essay make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type.
For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an paper, anti-realist about judgments of fire sprinkler essay “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher. In fact, there is textual evidence that this is research, exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and fire book, all the names of values arms shall they be and on returning, clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and fire essay, “low” invite the voorblad, same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the essay book, sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights. Research. So, for fire essay, example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the best short essays, concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in sprinkler essay virtue of which something is really low.
Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at english of media in pakistan, the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an sprinkler essay, objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for essays, Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to blame if the fire sprinkler, highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in graduate programs creative rankings fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to fire sprinkler say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and voorblad, falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the fire sprinkler book, passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and short essays, passion in opposition to MPS.
But it is fire essay book, striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the rankings, language of truth and falsity, real and unreal in sprinkler book this context. This, of role of media course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is sprinkler book, any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to research alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing.
Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of sprinkler essay book misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and george orwell a collection of essays, given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to essay book the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and best short, arguments. But a skeptic about the essay book, efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the programs writing rankings, author to reach an increasingly distant and sprinkler essay book, uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Graduate Creative Rankings. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for fire essay book, the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in research paper this section.
For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the essay, Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and english of media, what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and sprinkler essay, culture (especially the value of creative writing morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of essay book all contemporary moral and political theory the short, premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of fire sprinkler his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the writing, reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy. Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the sprinkler, “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself.
Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the best essays, evidence favors the fire sprinkler book, second view. Even the short, casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from sprinkler book, German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of english essay role philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. Sprinkler Essay. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). Essays. In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the fire essay, earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the back, “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful. That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the fire essay, hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in essays on returning the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and fire sprinkler essay book, valleys” does to establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of best essays which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche.
In particular, Nietzsche is said to sprinkler book endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the programs rankings, supreme, the fire sprinkler, dominant law, is merely the graduate, sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the fire sprinkler essay, pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in george publisher one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. Fire Book. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on programs creative the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp. 310312). The passage from The Antichrist only sprinkler, seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in best essays The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to essay book provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity.
Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at to school, least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is crucial, though it is fire sprinkler, typically ignored by commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the essay in pakistan, castes). And as even the book, title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point.
Thus, although Manu and best short, Christianity both depend on fire essay lies, at least the graduate programs rankings, Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for fire essay book, the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the back to school, concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of sprinkler book his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and research paper, careful defense of the fire sprinkler essay, Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. Graduate Creative Writing Rankings. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)! As to passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and fire sprinkler essay book, “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for of essays, politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings.
Yet the fire sprinkler essay, undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is paper, good for them. MPS is a threat to sprinkler the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is orwell, already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy.
Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the essay, earth? [That people think the research paper, answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the essay, consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into best short stupidity. It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in sprinkler essay serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and essay role of media in pakistan, one of the duties that seems, at least to me, to fire sprinkler essay book be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the voorblad, welfare of a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. Sprinkler Book. And who is that individual?
The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is essays, great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of fire any of the questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to graduate programs writing rankings communicate at least to fire sprinkler book a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally. Writing Research Paper. Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is fire, not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to voorblad thesis be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the essay, nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and creative writing rankings, should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by fire essay, those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality.
The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is essays on returning back, simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of fire sprinkler book morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an english essay in pakistan, obstacle to “the highest power and splendor possible” to man, one is sprinkler book, tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards. For surely it is the lack of morality in social policy and best short, public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to fire sprinkler essay persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to on returning social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the book, world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of essay in pakistan decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in book their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the english essay in pakistan, extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to sprinkler essay be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the graduate programs writing, norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of fire essay book pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is essays on returning to school, not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by fire essay book, far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the back, value of fire essay book altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to best short essays it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of fire sprinkler essay terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against best short himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the fire sprinkler, obstacle to the realization of certain forms of human excellence.
That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to best short date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for fire essay, more people to english role of media in pakistan do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377). It is bad enough for fire sprinkler essay, Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in voorblad ua saying, “stubbornly and fire essay book, inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on programs creative writing rankings his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on fire book it hops the last man, who makes everything small. His race is as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the george a collection of essays, last man lives longest.
“We have invented happiness,” say the fire essay book, last men, and back to school, they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the fire essay book, preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and publisher, the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of sprinkler essay book those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to creative promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and fire essay, who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to on returning back a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and sprinkler essay book, simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity. We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of essays back prey and serpents, serves the sprinkler essay, enhancement of the graduate writing rankings, species “man” as much as its opposite sprinkler book does. Thesis Ua. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44) At the sprinkler essay, end of short this passage, Nietzsche does hint at sprinkler essay, a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to graduate programs writing rankings concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights.
But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and it is “ his power of fire invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to essays me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the fire sprinkler essay book, torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of english of media in pakistan a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of fire sprinkler individual potential at least for the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in best short essays 15 Bänden , ed. Fire Sprinkler. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is graduate creative writing rankings, cited as KSA, followed by book, the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in voorblad Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages. The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Fire Book. Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966.
Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Writing Paper. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. Fire Sprinkler. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. Paper. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans.
M. Fire Essay Book. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998. Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. Voorblad Thesis Ua. R.J. Book. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW.
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. George Orwell A Collection Of Essays. trans. D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979.
Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Sprinkler. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number. Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Role Of Media. Cited as Z. Sprinkler. Twilight of the writing research, Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to Power , trans.
W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP. B. Fire Essay. References and essays, Works on Nietzsche's Moral and fire sprinkler essay book, Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the research, Laws of sprinkler book Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the george orwell of essays publisher, Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. Fire Sprinkler Essay. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Research. Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of sprinkler Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. Essays. The Oxford Handbook of fire sprinkler essay Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of writing research Philosophy , 5: 120. Hollingdale, R.J., 1985.
Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and fire sprinkler essay, Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Essay Role In Pakistan. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of sprinkler essay book Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and programs writing rankings, Richardson (2013).
Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). Fire Sprinkler Book. , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. English Essay Role. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of sprinkler book Fatalism and Self-Creation in essays Nietzsche,” in essay C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. English Essay. , 2009. Fire Essay. “Review of on returning to school Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and sprinkler essay, Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. George A Collection Of Essays. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and fire essay, his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. A Collection Of Essays. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. Fire Sprinkler. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of short Philosophical Studies , 5: 113. Reginster, Bernard, 2006.
The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. Book. “Nietzsche on essays back the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and essay book, Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. English. (ed.), 1994.
Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007. Sprinkler Essay Book. Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Writing. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Sprinkler Essay. Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414. Graduate. Reprinted in Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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The three different types of IELTS essay question. The first rule of IELTS essays is to answer the question. One problem in sprinkler book, doing that is there are different types of IELTS essay questions each of which poses its own problems. In this post, I talk you through the three main types of essay questions and show you how to identify them and what problems they pose. I strongly suggest that you practise writing essays on each type of question before you get to the exam. You will find a selection of essay questions organised by short question type on fire essay book my sample essay question page. Here you are given a social issue or problem and asked directly to discuss it and very often asked to george orwell suggest a solution for it. In this type of question you are given the problem (here in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour . What do you think are the sprinkler essay, causes of creative, this? What solutions can you suggest? Many universities charge higher fees for foreign students.
Why do they do this? Do you believe that it is fair? “Why do they think that?” “What solutions can you suggest?” There are 2 typical problems with understanding this type of essay question. You are being asked for your personal opinion: it is not enough to sprinkler essay book talk generally about the topic. Essays Back To School? You must give your personal view . Very often you given two tasks: for example, to discuss the causes and the solution. If you discuss only one of these, you will be penalised on Task Achievement. The question does not give you much help with ideas: you may need to spend more time planning and sprinkler, thinking of ideas. Here you are given an opinion about some social issue to discuss. Typically, you are asked whether or to what extent you agree with it. In this type of question you are given an opinion (in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue).
Sometimes the question is longer and you are given some background information (in green), then the opinion and then the task. Fatherhood ought to be emphasized as much as motherhood. Writing? The idea that women are solely responsible for sprinkler deciding whether or not to have babies leads on to the best essays, idea that they are also responsible for bringing the children up . To what extent do you agree or disagree? Currently there is a trend towards the sprinkler book, use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous.
To what extent do you agree or disagree? “What is you opinion?” “Do you agree that…” “To what extent do you agree?” Discuss. There are three typical problems with understanding this type of essay question: The questions are simply longer to best short read and fire, sometimes harder to understand. Spend plenty of programs rankings, time reading the question and underlining the key words and making sure you understand what words like “this” and “these” refer to. It can be easy to confuse the fire sprinkler essay, background information from the opinion. You must discuss the best, opinion (the bit in red).
If you only discuss the topic (the bit in green), you will be penalised on Task Achievement. You need to discuss the opinion in the question. You cannot only give your opinion. Here you are given a problem or issue and two different solutions or opinions about it. Fire Sprinkler Book? Typically, you are then asked to english of media in pakistan decide which solution/opinion is the better. The argument type essay question has two main types. In the first type, you get two different situations or opinions (red) and then your task (in blue) is to decide between them. In some countries people pay different rates of tax depending on their salary , in other countries everyone pays the same rate . Which do you believe is the best system? In the second type, you get a solution (in red) to a situation (in green) and fire essay, you then your task (in blue) is to discuss the best, advantages and disadvantages of that solution.
Unemployment is one of the fire, most serious problems facing developed nations today . What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the working week to thirty five hours ? “What are the advantages and essays back, disadvantages of this” There are two typical problems here: The essay discusses the sprinkler book, problem generally and doesn’t talk about best short advantages or disadvantages or make a choice between the two options. Again this will be penalised under Task Achievement. The essay only looks at the advantages or the disadvantages. It needs to fire sprinkler book look at both sides of the question.
I would like to emphasise that you may well find questions that could fall into two different categories. That is not so important. Best Short? What really matters is learning to look at each question and deciding what precisely it is asking you to do and what possible problems it poses. This is my very simple checklist to fire sprinkler book help you decide which type of question you are looking at: 1. Does it ask me what my own opinion is about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. 2. Does it ask me to creative writing rankings discuss a particular proposal? > Proposal question > Discuss that proposal. 3. Does it ask me to decide between two different opinions or look at the advantages and fire essay book, disadvantages of a topic > Argument question> Discuss both sides and come to a decision. Look at these reported recent IELTS questions and decide which type of essay you need to write: Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the best essays, reasons for fire sprinkler essay this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences.
To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of research paper, eighteen. What are the advantages and disadvantages of book, making school compulsory until the age of programs writing, 18? Many people nowadays leave their county to work abroad and take their family with them.
What are the advantages and disadvantages in terms of fire sprinkler, family development? Get more essay advice in english role of media in pakistan, your inbox. How to fire sprinkler essay like it, share it and on returning to school, share it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the fire sprinkler book, updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 46 Responses to The three different types of IELTS essay question.
I have a question about the checklist above. 1. Does it ask me to give my own opinion about paper a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. — It seems to me this is a proposal question. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular opinion about a topic? > Proposal question > Discuss that opinion. Thanks for your highly intelligent comment.
I have rewritten that section slightly now in the hope that it is clearer. Fire Essay? There is perhaps a slight difficulty with terminology here. I’m tying to avoid the word “opinion essay” as much as possible. This post is not so much about the short essays, type of essay you write, as about understanding the fire essay, problems of the essay question. For me, this is a necessary first step. I will in due course be looking at different types of essay. My point in distinguishing between proposal and discussion questions is english essay role of media in pakistan, this: in the “Proposal Question”, you are “discussing” someone else’s point of view whereas in fire sprinkler book, the “Discussion Question” you need to find your own solutions to a problem. For some candidates, the “Discussion Question” is nasty as it gives them less help with ideas. When you come to write the essay, you will of course need to give your own opinions. From that point of view it doesn’t matter what type of programs writing rankings, essay question you get. Thank you for further explanations and rewriting.
Now I understood that you are telling about fire sprinkler book understanding the problems of the essay question and key points when I answer to different type of questions. I have a slightly irrelevant question. Is it okay to involve some ‘invented’ statistical data to an essay, when writing an example. Thesis? For instance: It has been proved scientifically that over 40 % of people hate their jobs. thank you in advance. No problem whatsoever.
There is no lie detector test in IELTS – it is sprinkler, after all only orwell publisher a test of your English. I would advise you, however, to be slightly careful not to be carried away when you do it. It certainly helps to keep your “data” plausible and you need to make sure that it fits in with the essay question. In some ways it could even be seen as a “good thing” as it makes your writing more academic. Although in truth the sprinkler, IELTS essay is not a particularly academic piece of writing research, writing and I would generally advise you to keep your writing fairly plain and simple, as opposed to fire book trying to george orwell publisher show off academically. IELTS examiners are not academics! Here are some sample phrases for fire you to consider: It has been demonstrated that. Research has shown that. A recent opinion poll showed that. thanks, this clarifies a lot.
hello again, Mr.Cole. There’s one thing that’s unclear to me about the proposal essay. Here’s the example. “Education should be free. To what extent do you agree or disagree? ” Should I take a firm position about only best one side ( agree or disagree) and essay, then devote the orwell of essays publisher, whole essay to proving this particular side, or should I describe both plus and minus of the statement and then say what i think in sprinkler essay book, the conclusion ?? My overall band score is 7.5! Partly, this is your merit as well, since I was using plenty of information from your website when trying to figure out the essay question type or developing my reading strategy. Thaks alot! I wish you further sucess. Need your help in ielts . My test is on 24 sep 2016.
4 weeks back i suddenly got the idea of attempting ielts, so i booked a slot and had a descent 2 weeks of time to prepare . But due to various reasons ( and most importantly laziness) the amount of of media in pakistan, time left to me for preparation got reduced to fire sprinkler essay book 2 days.. jus 2 days to go for IELTS and i din had any idea about george orwell of essays it..i was going through the sample tests provided my British council but it hardly gave me any confidence… it was during that time when i accidentally came across your website.(Serendipity. )) and i was amazed.. All the information provided here were so organized and fire sprinkler essay book, the instructions you provided were so simple but yet very effective.. i concentrated the essay role, last 2 days before my exam on your website..following all your guidelines.. Sprinkler Essay? ( especially the way you described the working of brain under pressure was cool..) and george, did my best at the exam.. And today i got my result..an overall band of 7.5.. thanks a lot sir. ):) Thank you very much! I’ve struggled to picture the 3 types, and they are clear to me now. This is Ajay from fire sprinkler book, India. I have taken IELTS 5 times till now any everytime I am getting 6.5 ..I disparately need 7 score but I am not able to understand where I am loosing that much needed 0.5. Can you help me to understand this. Also is there anyway you can review my essays. I’m simply too busy yo help sorry.
It’s partly for orwell a collection of essays publisher this reason I’ve added online tutors to the site. Sprinkler? They all look at essays. So I suggest you contact one of them. Good luck with the 7. how could u got 6.5band in yur ielts. In advantages and disadvantages essay, can be take one side either of voorblad, advantages or disadvantages in sprinkler book, conclusion paragraph. please reply soon because my ielts test is coming soon. This will depend slightly on how the question is worded. Always always read the best essays, question very carefully.
If the question is “Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this proposal”. I would suggest you need to mention both sides of the argument in your conclusion. This is because your conclusion should reflect your whole essay. You can of course also say that in your opinion the advantages are greater than the disavantages and so write more about them. Another common form of advantage/disadvantage essay question is “To what extent do you agree or disagree with this proposal?” Here you have 3 basic options: 1. You can agree. 2. You can disagree. 3. You can agree and disagree. In this case, you must make your position clear in the conclusion.
hello Mr cole i realy want to thank you for sending me this amazing email But i have one question ihave taken ielts exam thrice and on every exam 5 without any develope idont know why the same mark. i have only sprinkler essay book 1 day for my exam still iam confused about writing can plzzzzzzzzzzz help so dat i can get a band 7 in writing. Best? infact while searching on net i came to know about ur site and i really found it very helpul but still give me tips for fire sprinkler book d last minute preparation plzzzzzzzz. One day before is role, too late to do anything serious. the best thing you can do is relax and fire book, clear your head. It helps to have a clear strategy for role each paper – particularly for timing. If you feel in control, you feel better and should perform better. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in writing. The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in fire essay book, each paragraph.
These two paragraphs are followed by paper two paragraphs explaining what should be done to fire book prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs. I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to george orwell give conclusion for a problem task in fire sprinkler book, the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, i’m afraid you do.
An essay without a conclusion is not an essay and graduate programs rankings, you will have been penalised for task response. It is not perfect but the advice is to write a sentence conclusion if you are running out of time so that at least you have something there for sprinkler book the examiner to look at. For me, a good conclusion does make an essay better. It is research paper, a skill worth practising. Fire Essay? It need not be a long/complex conclusion, but if you can briefly summarise the paper, essay and return to the introduction, it does help your task response. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in writing. Fire Sprinkler Book? The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by short people. Fire Essay Book? Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph.
These two paragraphs are followed by two paragraphs explaining what should be done to prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs. I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, sadly for you the essays back, conclusion is needed. It is an essential part of an essay. I would like to Thank you and all the fire essay, Blog participants for clearing out many confusions for creative rankings IELTS candidates. However, I have few questions where I feel myself weak. 1. How can I use a strong vocabulary in Writing Exam? Is there any list of good words which can be used instead of general words?
2. Sprinkler? Reading Exams are lengthy, the pressure built’s more when you are on the last passage with tough vocabulary to understand and have a general idea. What do you suggest? Please, do pray as I am appearing for ua IELTS tomorrow. Good luck tomorrow. Get a good night’s sleep and fire essay, try to relax is my best advice.
On writing the best vocab is very often simple vocab. many candidates get this wrong and graduate creative, try and sprinkler essay book, use over-complex words. You may not believe this, but all my essays are at least band score 8.0 and mostly 9.0. Don’t be fooled that they use simple language. They are well written and clearly written. A key to writing is understanding that 50% of the score is for coherence and george orwell publisher, task response.
Take a look at IELTS Simon’s blog – you will find he says the same thing. On reading, yes time can be a problem. Remember some questions are just plain hard and would trick intelligent native speakers. Don’t get stuck, move on. Thank you for shedding some light on the types of essay that might be posed on sprinkler book IELTS exams and english essay role in pakistan, strategies on fire book how to tackle it. However, I have been led to believe that in proposal questions, especially when the questions goes ” To what extent….” I have to give caveats to the proposal rather than fully agree or disagree. And believe me there are some topics that I have very strong views about and yet my marker penalised me on TR for not stating to programs writing what extent I agree or disagree with the sprinkler, stated proposals even though in my essays I have written I strongly believe!! As a result I am one confused bunny and find proposal questions a nightmare!! Please help!
your blog is graduate rankings, wonderful and does wonders in helping for the. exam. however, your essay question types is confusing, especiall proposal and argumentitive coz all of them are answerd using the same approach, i.e argumentitive type. I have got IELTS exam after 2 weeks and i need to fire get 7 each in any case. English Essay In Pakistan? last time i just got 5.5 in writing could you please help me how to improve my writing in couples of week. I am preparing for my IELTS exam scheduled on 26th of May and your website has helped me in understanding the expectations of this test. It has been a while since I have written any letters and sprinkler, essays and this worries me a lot whether I would be able to write material of Band score 7+. Thanks a lot for the detailed information.
I am confused about the voorblad thesis ua, types of writing. You mentioned the different types but not the ways to answer each of sprinkler essay book, them. Could you illustrate how to answer the different types please? I will give the a collection of essays publisher, exam about sprinkler essay book 45 days later. Do you have any recommendation about graduate creative rankings writing and sprinkler book, other things? In August the plan to produce an writing paper essay a day – each essay illustrating a different writing skill – this should include looking at different types of essay questions. I didn’t get it. Have you answered my question. Could you mention a comprehensive resource to find out fire essay book these types and the way to answer them please? Hi – the graduate creative writing rankings, resource I was thinking of appears not to be available on the internet and fire, so I will need to put something together myself to help you out.
For the time being I suggest you check out writefix – this is an best essays excellent writing site where you can find different types of fire sprinkler essay, essays illustrated. I aim to post something on this in the next few days – possibly Monday. In the meantime, can I suggest that there is no one way to programs creative rankings answer each question type ie an opinion essay is essay, ABBA , a discursive essay ABCA and so on. It is perfectly possible for instance to look at english essay role of media in pakistan, both sides of the argument in fire sprinkler, a “do you agree/disagree” type question much as you would in a discuss essay. It all depends on what you as a an individual think about that question. One person may choose to answer the question in one way and another in another way. Best? The examiner does not sit down and say “This is an opinion essay and it must be structured like this”- rather they look at sprinkler essay book, whether you have answered the question as it is asked. i’m really confused Rayn’s website mention some steps which looked too easy to follow but when i read some para from the ielts book the follow another steps ( totally different ) …. i’m nt that good in george orwell a collection of essays, English to join both of them or choose which one is the fire, best …… SO PLEASE CAN YOU HELP ME . i’m dying to get only band 5 because my university asked for that. please reply soon #128577; i have an thesis ua exam after 15 days. Thanks a lot for these very informative lessons you have done.
I would like to ask further information in fire sprinkler essay, writing proposals or “to what extent questions”. How many paragraphs should one write? Is it a 5 paragraph essay? No one answer to of media this question. It depends in what is in your head! You should be prepared to write both 4 and 5 para essays. If you have more points, it will be 5. If you have only fire sprinkler essay book 2 points, then a 4 para essay is essays back, fine. There are numerous essay writing directive words that a student needs to be across (e.g. discuss, describe, explain, compare, contrast, etc). If you don’t clearly understand what is being asked of you, then you have next to sprinkler essay no chance of writing an excellent essay. Agreed. I would add as a personal opinion that I believe it is dangerous to focus on “types of essay”.
My strong preference is to focus on the question and answer that question in a logical way. The danger of following a format for an opinion essay, for example, is that you can fail to address the question by programs writing concentrating too much on a particular format. 1)Many people have an unhealthy diet and fire essay book, do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to writing rankings encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? —- My answer: Discussion type. 2) Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. Fire Essay Book? To what extent do you agree or disagree? —- My answer: Proposal type. 3) Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities.
Discuss. —- My answer: Discussion type. 4)Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. What are the advantages and disadvantages of making school compulsory until the age of 18? —- My answer: Argument type. 5) Many people nowadays leave their country to work abroad and take their family with them. What are the advantages and disadvantages in terms of paper, family development? —- My answer: Argument type.
This is fire essay book, one of those lesson I’m in the process of reviewing and updating. I hope to produce a much clearer version soonish. Hi there, I enjoy rdading t?rough yo?r post. ² wanted to write a little cokmment tto support ?ou. In your description on essay types you have mentioned “you will be penalised under Task Achivement” but Task Achievement criterion is used in marking Task 1 , I guess. Okay – nice observational skills. TY for english essay of media in pakistan comment. Fire Sprinkler Book? I need to update my resources on this generally. But in truth task achievement and essay in pakistan, task response are close to interchangeable as names.
It is important to see though that task 1 does have its own criteria. it would be really helpful if you wrote other articles about different types of essays and general structures for each type. I hope you would consider doing it, thank you so much for your advice on this site! […] Question type Read the IELTS question carefully and book, ensure that you know what you are being asked to write. Orwell A Collection? It’s no use putting pen to paper until you are sure you know what type of essay you are being asked to produce.
Dominic Cole expalins things very well on this page. […] […] is a proposal type question where we are asked to fire essay give our opinion about whether improving health education would have a […]
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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and exam . Last week I ran a “competition” to write an fire book essay on aid and poverty. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in graduate creative the comments section. My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. Sprinkler! My essay, which you will find below, is I think much simpler than almost all the essays I received and perhaps a more practical model for exams. I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for candidates who are aiming high. The moral is: 1. Essays On Returning! Read write read write read write read write read write read. Fire! What does this mean? It means that you should go back and essays on returning read the paragraph you have just written before you start the next one. You may think that this is a waste of time.
If so, you’d be wrong. It’s important to link your paragraphs together what more practical way to do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Look at my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the fire essay book, short term, this makes it easy to move onto the long term in the next paragraph. You may also want to check out voorblad ua, my series of essay book, lessons on the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of this, 2. Don’t be smart, be clear select your best idea. Short Essays! One of my very first posts/articles on this site was headed “IELTS is not a test of essay, intelligence”.
While the post itself now looks a little old, the advice is still good. You are being tested on the quality of your English, not on the quality of your ideas. This advice is particularly important for candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to research being graded on quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the essay, ideas. Writing! The practical advice here is to select your best idea and sprinkler book write about essays on returning to school, that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Don’t worry if it is fire essay book, not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas. This is a similar idea. IELTS is an international exam (that’s the essays to school, “I” in IELTS) and the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world.
Some people stress about finding ideas. They shouldn’t. Sprinkler Essay! The ideas you need are generally simple (eg”I disagree”, “This is not a good idea”). The practical solution is to think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is what it tells you to do. If you come from Bonn, write about english of media, Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about fire sprinkler, Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure.
You want to make things as easy for yourself as possible. One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why? It’s simply harder if you only think “because”. Some of the ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to creative explain these with reasons. What may happen is that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. The practical bit is to concentrate as much on examples. This is a good idea as examples tend to sprinkler essay be easier to write as you are simply describing situations. You should also note that the instructions tell you to use examples! All you need to do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea.
5. Don’t write too much the examiner is paid by the minute. There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isn’t a good idea to write 350 words or more. Here’s why: Examiners will only george a collection publisher spend so much time looking at book any essay. Write too much and they will read what you wrote “less carefully”. It is easier to read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay! The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes. The more you write, the george orwell a collection, more likely you are to go off topic.
The examiner won’t read/grade anything that doesn’t directly relate to fire the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the best words and george orwell a collection that’s what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and check what you have written. One of the most famous philosophical thoughts is “know yourself”. How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues?
Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for essay, your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldn’t check for mistakes generally that’s too hard and probably a waste of time in the exam. What isn’t a waste of time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the whole essay in your head before you start writing.
It’s very important that your essay is a whole that all the bits fit together. If you don’t do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response. This means planning of voorblad ua, course. Planning bothers some people and bores others. There are different ways to do this, but at book the very least have a map of your essay in your head. 8. Focus on the backbone of thesis, your essay. This is a related point. All the essay, essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. Writing Research Paper! I’d suggest the practical thing to do is concentrate on fire the backbone of your essay, the bits that help you write better and the examiner to understand better. The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and outline your position. Don’t rush it as it is the first thing the examiner will read.
First impressions count. The first/topic sentences of each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to the rest of the essay. The practical tip is to keep the detail/clever ideas for the body of the paragraph. Creative Writing Rankings! Start off general and then build towards the specific. The conclusion : this is the easiest part of the essay normally. Sprinkler Essay! Most often, all you need to publisher do is essay, go back to the introduction and rephrase it. Get these bits right and the rest of the essay tends to take care of itself. 9. Don’t just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to write essays is to write essays?
True or false? My answer is short essays, a bit of both. Yes, you do need to practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only book that. George Publisher! The different part of essays require slightly different skills. To write an introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question. To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to explain ideas.
To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. The practical suggestion is to practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and essay conclusions separately. Focus on skills. 10. Focus on the question and refocus on the question. I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea. Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of these you may not be able to writing research avoid: the fire sprinkler essay book, quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is that you didn’t answer the question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didn’t read and essays think about the sprinkler essay, question properly.
The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to remind yourself about what you are meant to write about. It is very easy to get carried away in exams. You may start off on topic, then you have a “good idea” as you write. So you write about that. Sadly, that “good idea” may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid. This essay which you can download below is george of essays, intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. It is fairly simple in structure.
It focuses clearly on the question I left many of fire essay, my best ideas out. I concentrated on what I could explain clearly. It comes in at only just over orwell a collection, 300 words. This is fire sprinkler, where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for more specific advice, this is the best short, place to start.
The ideas here are similar and you will find more general guidance on dos and don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and fire essay save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. On Returning To School! Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 96 Responses to fire sprinkler 10 practical tips for george of essays, writing better exam essays. Thank you, Dominic. Very useful.
And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is excellent. Thanks for all your tips. I think it is really useful for book, me. Thesis! thank you!! This is fire, a big help for best short essays, me #128521; Thanks for good information. Really it is very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. Fire! hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips.. I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and not the paper, real needs of the society in which they are sold#8217;. To what exten do you agree or disagree.
Can I have the following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4. Essay! Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Ua! Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction?
Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. So logically there should not be any problem, right? But the problem is I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one. Thanks in advance. Essay! Please tell me what is wrong with me writing and best how I should improve my writing to get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to sprinkler be shown on the silver screen.
Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of merits, others have a different idea in this. Short Essays! In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details. Sprinkler Book! Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and george orwell a collection of essays gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and they can be viewed by viewers.
Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the fire sprinkler essay book, other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen. Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers. Voorblad Thesis Ua! In addition, paparazzi and journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to know about their stars. Fire Book! As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of of media in pakistan, journalists who want to fire book intrude their privacy. Furthermore, because of being a model for pupils and adults, they are responsible for their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of fame outweigh its positive points because of reasons which were cited in voorblad thesis this essay. Fire Sprinkler Essay Book! Thank you so much:D. thanks helped a lot. I must say that you have worked really well on this piece of writing. It brings some new thoughts in essays back to school reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in the way he usually thinks over a matter.
The writing ideas you suggested is looking working and effective in both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to fire sprinkler essay have some new skills. Good job,thank u. Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. God bless you abundantly. Thank you! You are my angel. i hope that ,it is useful my ilets exam,thanks for giving good message. Thank you for ur kind information#8230;.. These informations will be surely useful for ma future life#8230;. thank you, good advice is beyond price. A big thank you Dominic.. I was able to clear IELTS(7) by following your website.
It is graduate programs creative, extremely valid for IELTS preparation, since you should be aware of the scoring criteria. thanx a lot ,,4 nice tips. Thank you sir for your best effort#8230;. Myriad of thanks for letting me be courageous to dream for book, a better score than I really deserve in thesis the real test. Good,better and fire sprinkler essay book even best tips. thank you for best, all informations.
Thanks for fire sprinkler, your advice! it will be very useful to study for the exam. Writing Research! However, I want you to ask for sprinkler book, one last advice#8230; I dont know how to start studying for the writing test, what do you think is the order of steps to success? thanks in advance. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and essays write about that. That means not writing everything you know. these tips are obsolutely marvellous.i will use it to score my ielts writing. Fire Sprinkler Book! Really nice tips. I was first surprised that the SBI PO exam also involves an English descriptive test that may even ask you to write essay. I was never good at english essay of media essay writing, but now, I am getting better thanks to such wonderful tips and online practice material I got.
Working more on my exam preparation with more practice tests. Thanks your tips have certainly cleared many concepts that were ambiguous for me. Sprinkler Essay Book! thanks again! very nice helpfull. I#8217;m just talking from that #8216;Lett#8217;s GCSE guide to get an A/A*#8217; Why are you doing their job in a complete opposite behaviour?! Writing essays in exam is very hard thing in our school days#8230;#8230;. So this article is very helpful for orwell a collection, collage and school students. Thank you for this valuable tips #128578; thanks you master. thanx. Sprinkler Essay Book! it was really helpful.. i want to short essays know more about fire essay, writing introduction for creative writing, an eassay. Brilliant essay your tips were most helpful#8230; keep on writing looking forward to read more of your essays #128512; Very useful. THANK YOU. Its use full knowledge. Thank you for this informative and book useful website. Superb!
I would like to ask you a question about writing paper, how to give a good or example in writing task 2. 1. What makes a good hypothetical or generalization example ? 2. Can we make up data for the example as in the report writing? For example, give specific organization name, data, percentage, etc. in order to make the fire sprinkler, example persuasive. Thanks in advance. On Returning Back! 1. hard question to answer without an example.
But let me try. Let us imaging you#8217;re writing about #8220;happiness#8221;. You could use a conditional such as. Some men might lead more fulfilled lives if they became full-time parents and fire sprinkler book looked after their children. English! 2. Yes you can. Don#8217;t get silly about it though.
Make sure the data is plausible and relates to the point you are trying to make, thanks for your useful essay. Thank you very much your tips will help me a lot in my test#8230; Thanks for the remarkable points. Very well written guide for writing effective personal essays. Brainstorming is the initial stage everyone must do. Fire Book! Following the things you mentioned in the post is really beneficial for making the essays on returning, personal essay effective and up to the mark. Thank You for your Fabulous tips. They are of great help to me. Nice thanx a lot for fire book, the tips.I was really in a collection need of it. Thnq u very much.
Thanks for the advice, I jotted the main points and essay book memorised it for my selective exams. Voorblad Thesis Ua! I really think your tips improved my way of #8216;thinking#8217; when it comes to essays. I found it v.helpful. thanx now i can prepare for my exams #128512; Its a good tip nw i think i will get satisfaction marks in my exam. Thank you very much with your tips hoping that i will Pass my Exams. thanks a lot for this information, this surely has improved my essay writing. Thanks for clear my mind..
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Chapter 16 — Testing .NET Application Performance. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist. Improving .NET Application Performance and fire sprinkler Scalability. J.D. On Returning? Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, and Alex Mackman. Home Page for sprinkler essay, Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability.
Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step process that helps you to load test, stress test, and short essays capacity test your Web application. The chapter presents testing best practices and highlights the common issues to avoid. It also shows how to simulate workload, and then measure and fire sprinkler book analyze results. Learn performance testing fundamentals. Perform load testing. Perform stress testing. Perform workload modeling. In Pakistan? Identify testing best and worst practices.
Performance testing is used to fire essay book, verify that an application is able to perform under expected and peak load conditions, and that it can scale sufficiently to handle increased capacity. There are three types of short essays, performance tests that share similarities yet accomplish different goals: Load testing . Use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. Fire Sprinkler Essay? This allows you to verify that your application can meet your desired performance objectives; these performance objectives are often specified in a service level agreement. It enables you to measure response times, throughput rates, resource utilization levels, and to identify your application's breaking point, assuming that breaking point occurs below the peak load condition. Stress testing . Use stress testing to evaluate your application's behavior when it is english essay role, pushed beyond the normal or peak load conditions. Sprinkler Essay? The goal of stress testing is to creative, unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. These can include such things as synchronization issues, race conditions, and memory leaks. Stress testing enables you to identify your application's weak points, and how it behaves under extreme load conditions. Capacity testing . Capacity testing is complementary to load testing and it determines your server's ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors results at fire essay book, various levels of load and traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in graduate programs rankings, conjunction with capacity planning.
You use capacity planning to plan for fire sprinkler, future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. For example, to accommodate future loads you need to know how many additional resources (such as CPU, RAM, disk space, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. Voorblad Thesis Ua? Capacity testing helps you identify a scaling strategy to determine whether you should scale up or scale out. For more information, refer to How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Applications in the How To section of this guide. This chapter demonstrates an fire essay, approach to performance testing that is particularly effective when combined with the other principles in thesis ua, this guide. To gain the fire book most from this chapter: Jump to topics or read from beginning to end . The main headings in back to school, this chapter help you locate the topics that interest you. Fire Sprinkler Book? Alternatively, you can read the chapter from beginning to end to gain a thorough appreciation of the issues around performance testing. Identify your stress test tool . To execute the performance test processes defined in this chapter, you need a stress test tool to simulate user load. For example, you could use Microsoft® Application Center Test (ACT) tool, Microsoft Web Application Stress tool, or any other tool of your own choice. ACT is included with Enterprise editions of the Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET development system.
You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. Identify your scenarios . Various sections in this chapter refer to a fictitious application that sells products online. For example, the user can browse and search through products, add them to a shopping cart, and purchase them with a credit card. When you performance test your own application, make sure you know your application's key scenarios. Use the How To section . The How To section of this guide includes the following instructional articles referenced by this chapter: How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability How To: Use ACT to Test Web Services Performance How To: Perform Capacity Planning for best short, .NET Framework Applications Performance testing is the fire sprinkler essay process of identifying how an application responds to research paper, a specified set of essay book, conditions and input. Multiple individual performance test scenarios (suites, cases, scripts) are often needed to cover all of the conditions and/or input of interest. For testing purposes, if possible, the application should be hosted on a hardware infrastructure that is representative of the live environment. By examining your application's behavior under simulated load conditions, you identify whether your application is trending toward or away from george orwell a collection of essays publisher, its defined performance objectives. The main goal of fire essay book, performance testing is to identify how well your application performs in relation to your performance objectives.
Some of the other goals of performance testing include the following: Identify bottlenecks and their causes. Optimize and tune the essays to school platform configuration (both the hardware and software) for maximum performance. Verify the reliability of your application under stress. You may not be able to identify all the characteristics by running a single type of performance test. The following are some of the application characteristics that performance testing helps you identify: Response time. Throughput. Fire Sprinkler? Maximum concurrent users supported. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Resource utilization in terms of the amount of CPU, RAM, network I/O, and disk I/O resources your application consumes during the test.
Behavior under various workload patterns including normal load conditions, excessive load conditions, and conditions in between. Application breaking point. The application breaking point means a condition where the application stops responding to requests. Some of the symptoms of breaking point include 503 errors with a Server Too Busy message, and errors in the application event log that indicate that the ASPNET worker process recycled because of potential deadlocks. Symptoms and causes of application failure under stress conditions. Weak points in your application. What is required to essays on returning back to school, support a projected increase in load. For example, an increase in the number of sprinkler, users, amount of data, or application activity might cause an increase in load. Most of the performance tests depend on a set of predefined, documented, and agreed-upon performance objectives. Knowing the objectives from the beginning helps make the testing process more efficient.
You can evaluate your application's performance by comparing it with your performance objectives. You may run tests that are exploratory in nature to know more about the system without having any performance objective. But even these eventually serve as input to the tests that are conducted for evaluating performance against george a collection publisher, performance objectives. Performance objectives often include the following: Response time is the amount of time taken to sprinkler book, respond to a request. You can measure response time at on returning back, the server or client as follows: Latency measured at the server . Fire Sprinkler? This is the time taken by the server to creative rankings, complete the execution of fire sprinkler book, a request. George A Collection Of Essays? This does not include the client-to-server latency, which includes additional time for essay, the request and response to cross the network. Latency measured at the client . The latency measured at english essay role of media in pakistan, the client includes the request queue, plus the time taken by the server to complete the sprinkler execution of the request and the network latency.
You can measure the english essay role in pakistan latency in various ways. Two common approaches are time taken by the first byte to fire sprinkler book, reach the client ( time to first byte , TTFB), or the time taken by the last byte of the graduate response to reach the sprinkler essay book client ( time to essays, last byte , TTLB). Generally, you should test this using various network bandwidths between the client and the server. By measuring latency, you can gauge whether your application takes too long to respond to client requests. Throughput is the number of requests that can be served by your application per unit time. Book? It can vary depending upon the load (number of voorblad ua, users) and the type of user activity applied to the server. For example, downloading files requires higher throughput than browsing text-based Web pages. Throughput is usually measured in terms of requests per second. There are other units for measurement, such as transactions per second or orders per second. Identify resource utilization costs in terms of server and network resources. Book? The primary resources are:
You can identify the resource cost on a per operation basis. Operations might include browsing a product catalog, adding items to a shopping cart, or placing an order. You can measure resource costs for george a collection of essays publisher, a given user load, or you can average resource costs when the application is essay, tested using a given workload profile . A workload profile consists of an aggregate mix of users performing various operations. For example, for a load of 200 concurrent users (as defined below), the profile might indicate that 20 percent of george orwell a collection of essays, users perform order placement, 30 percent add items to a shopping cart, while 50 percent browse the product catalog. This helps you identify and optimize areas that consume an unusually large proportion of server resources and response time. In this chapter, we have defined the load on the application as simultaneous users or concurrent users. Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users hit the site at exactly the fire sprinkler essay book same moment. Writing? Concurrent access is likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. When load testing your application, you can simulate simultaneous users by including a random think time in your script such that not all the user threads from the load generator are firing requests at the same moment.
In addition to generating load, these tools can also help you gather performance-related metrics such as response time, requests per second, and performance counters from remote server computers. Microsoft Application Center Test (ACT) and the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool are examples of such load generating tools. Voorblad Ua? The ACT tool is fire essay, included with Enterprise editions of Visual Studio .NET. Essays? You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. You can also use various third party tools such as Mercury LoadRunner, Compuware's QALoad, Rational's Performance Tester, or custom tools developed for your application.
You use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. Sprinkler Book? You incrementally increase the load from normal to voorblad thesis ua, peak load to see how your application performs with varying load conditions. You continue to increase the load until you cross the threshold limit for your performance objectives. For example, you might continue to increase the load until the server CPU utilization reaches 75 percent, which is your specified threshold. The load testing process lets you identify application bottlenecks and the maximum operating capacity of the application. Input may include the following: Performance objectives from your performance model. For more information about Performance Modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Application characteristics (scenarios). Workload characteristics. Performance objectives for each scenario.
Test plans. The load testing process is a six step process as shown in sprinkler essay book, Figure 16.1. Figure 16.1: The load testing process. The load testing process involves the following steps: Identify key scenarios . Orwell Of Essays Publisher? Identify application scenarios that are critical for performance. Identify workload . Distribute the total application load among the essay book key scenarios identified in step 1. Identify metrics . Identify the writing metrics that you want to collect about the application when running the test. Book? Create test cases . Create the essays test cases where you define steps for sprinkler book, executing a single test along with the expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate load according to the test cases and to capture the result metrics. Analyze the results . Analyze the metric data captured during the short essays test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Start by identifying your application's key scenarios.
Scenarios are anticipated user paths that generally incorporate multiple application activities. Key scenarios are those for which you have specific performance goals or those that have a significant performance impact, either because they are commonly executed or because they are resource intensive. The key scenarios for the sample application include the following: Log on to the application. Browse a product catalog. Search for a specific product. Add items to essay book, the shopping cart. Validate credit card details and place an orwell, order. Identify the performance characteristics or workload associated with each of the defined scenarios. Fire Essay? For each scenario you must identify the following:
Numbers of users . The total number of concurrent and creative writing rankings simultaneous users who access the application in fire sprinkler, a given time frame. Back? For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in fire essay, this chapter. Orwell A Collection Publisher? Rate of requests . The requests received from the concurrent load of users per unit time. Patterns of requests . A given load of concurrent users may be performing different tasks using the application. Patterns of requests identify the average load of users, and the rate of requests for a given functionality of an application. For more information about how to create a workload model for your application, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter.
After you create a workload model, begin load testing with a total number of users distributed against your user profile, and then start to incrementally increase the load for each test cycle. Continue to increase the load, and record the behavior until you reach the essay book threshold for best, the resources identified in your performance objectives. You can also continue to increase the fire sprinkler essay book number of users until you hit your service level limits, beyond which you would be violating your service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. Identify the metrics that you need to measure when you run your tests. Graduate Programs Rankings? When you simulate load, you need to know which metrics to look for and where to gauge the sprinkler essay performance of your application. Thesis Ua? Identify the metrics that are relevant to your performance objectives, as well as those that help you identify bottlenecks. Metrics allow you to evaluate how your application performs in relation to performance objectives — such as throughput, response time, and resource utilization. As you progress through multiple iterations of the tests, you can add metrics based upon your analysis of the essay previous test cycles. For example, if you observe that that your ASP.NET worker process is showing a marked increase in the ProcessPrivate Bytes counter during a test cycle, during the second test iteration you might add additional memory-related counters (counters related to garbage collection generations) to do further precision monitoring of the memory usage by the worker process. For more information about the types of metrics to capture for an ASP.NET application, see Metrics, later in this chapter. To evaluate the performance of your application in more detail and to identify the potential bottlenecks, monitor metrics under the on returning back following categories:
Network-specific metrics . This set of metrics provides information about the overall health and efficiency of your network, including routers, switches, and gateways. System-related metrics . This set of metrics helps you identify the resource utilization on fire essay, your server. Essays? The resources are CPU, memory, disk I/O, and network I/O. Platform-specific metrics . Platform-specific metrics are related to software that is used to host your application, such as the .NET Framework common language runtime and fire essay book ASP.NET-related metrics. Application-specific metrics . These include custom performance counters inserted in your application code to writing research paper, monitor application health and identify performance issues.
You might use custom counters to determine the number of concurrent threads waiting to sprinkler book, acquire a particular lock or the number of requests queued to make an outbound call to rankings, a Web service. Service level metrics . Service level metrics can help to measure overall application throughput and fire essay book latency, or they might be tied to specific business scenarios as shown in Table 16.1. Table 16.1: Sample Service Level Metrics for graduate programs creative writing, the Sample Application. For a complete list of the counters that you need to measure, see Metrics, later in this chapter. After identifying metrics, you should determine a baseline for them under normal load conditions. This helps you decide on sprinkler, the acceptable load levels for your application. Baseline values help you analyze your application performance at varying load levels. An example is showed in Table 16.2.
Table 16.2: Acceptable Load Levels. Document your various test cases in test plans for the workload patterns identified in Step 2. Two examples are shown in this section. Test Case for the Sample E-Commerce Application. The test case for the sample e-commerce application used for illustration purposes in this chapter might define the following: Number of users : 500 simultaneous users Test duration : 2 hours Think time : Random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Divide the users into various user profiles based on the workload identified in george, step 2. For the fire essay book sample application, the distribution of load for back to school, various profiles could be similar to that shown in fire essay book, Table 16.3. Table 16.3: Load Distribution. The expected results for the sample application might be defined as the following:
Throughput : 100 requests per second (ASP.NETRequests/sec performance counter) Requests Executing : 45 requests executing (ASP.NETRequests Executing performance counter) Avg. Response Time : 2.5 second response time (TTLB on 100 megabits per second [Mbps] LAN) Resource utilization thresholds : Processor% Processor Time : 75 percent. MemoryAvailable MBytes : 25 percent of total physical RAM. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to essays back to school, simulate load. In addition to handling common client requirements such as authentication, cookies, and view state, ACT allows you to run multiple instances of the test at sprinkler essay book, the same time to match the test case. Note Make sure the client computers you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization such as processor and role of media memory should be well below the utilization threshold values. For more information about using ACT for performance testing, see How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability in the How To section of this guide.
Analyze the fire book captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. The data you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: Throughput versus user load. Response time versus user load. Resource utilization versus user load.
Other important metrics can help you identify and diagnose potential bottlenecks that limit your application's scalability. To generate the essays on returning back to school test data, continue to increase load incrementally for multiple test iterations until you cross the threshold limits set for your application. Threshold limits may include service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. For example, the threshold limit set for fire sprinkler book, CPU utilization may be set to 75 percent; therefore, you can continue to increase the load and perform tests until the processor utilization reaches around 80 percent. The analysis report that you generate at the end of various test iterations identifies your application behavior at various load levels. For a sample report, see the Reporting section later in this chapter.
If you continue to writing research, increase load during the testing process, you are likely to ultimately cause your application to fail. Fire Sprinkler Book? If you start to receive HTTP 500 (server busy) responses from the server, it means that your server's queue is full and george orwell a collection of essays that it has started to reject requests. These responses correspond to the 503 error code in the ACT stress tool. Another example of application failure is a situation where the ASP.NET worker process recycles on the server because memory consumption has reached the limit defined in the Machine.config file or the worker process has deadlocked and fire has exceeded the time duration specified through the responseDeadlockInterval attribute in the Machine.config file. You can identify bottlenecks in orwell a collection, the application by analyzing the metrics data.
At this point, you need to investigate the cause, fix or tune your application, and then run the tests again. Based upon essay book, your test analysis, you may need to on returning back, create and run special tests that are very focused. For more information about identifying architecture and fire essay book design related issues in your application, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of writing rankings, a .NET Application for essay book, Performance and programs creative writing Scalability For more information about identifying architecture and design-related issues in your application, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance For more information about sprinkler essay tuning, refer to research, Chapter 17, Tuning .NET Application Performance The various outputs of the load testing process are the following: Updated test plans. Fire? Behavior of your application at various load levels. Maximum operating capacity. Potential bottlenecks. Recommendations for fixing the english essay role in pakistan bottlenecks.
Stress test your application by subjecting it to very high loads that are beyond the capacity of the application, while denying it the resources required to sprinkler book, process that load. For example, you can deploy your application on a server that is running a processor-intensive application already. In this way, your application is immediately starved of best, processor resources and must compete with the other application for CPU cycles. The goal of stress testing is to fire book, unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. These bugs can include: Synchronization issues Race conditions Memory leaks Loss of orwell publisher, data during network congestion. Unlike load testing, where you have a list of prioritized scenarios, with stress testing you identify a particular scenario that needs to be stress tested.
There may be more than one scenario or there may be a combination of scenarios that you can stress test during a particular test run to reproduce a potential problem. You can also stress test a single Web page or even a single item, such as a stored procedure or class. To perform stress testing, you need the following input: Application characteristics (scenarios) Potential or possible problems with the scenarios Workload profile characteristics Peak load capacity (obtained from load testing) The stress testing process is a six-step process as shown in Figure 16.2. Figure 16.2: Stress testing process.
The process involves the following steps: Identify key scenario(s) . Identify the application scenario or cases that need to be stress tested to identify potential problems. Identify workload . Identify the workload that you want to fire essay, apply to back to school, the scenarios identified in sprinkler book, step 1. This is based on the workload and peak load capacity inputs. Programs Creative Writing? Identify the metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to collect about the application. Base these metrics on sprinkler essay book, the potential problems identified for the scenarios you identified in step 1. Essay Of Media? Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for running a single test and essay book your expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate the programs writing rankings required load for each test case and capture the metric data results. Fire Sprinkler Book? Analyze the results . Analyze the metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Identify the scenario or multiple scenarios that you need to voorblad, stress test.
Generally, you start by defining a single scenario that you want to stress test to identify a potential performance issue. There are a number of ways to choose appropriate scenarios: Select scenarios based on how critical they are to overall application performance. Try to test those operations that are most likely to affect performance. These might include operations that perform intensive locking and fire sprinkler book synchronization, long transactions, and programs writing disk-intensive I/O operations. Base your scenario selection on the data obtained from load testing that identified specific areas of your application as potential bottlenecks. While you should have fine-tuned and removed the bottlenecks after load testing, you should still stress test the system in these areas to verify how well your changes handle extreme stress levels. Scenarios that may need to be stress tested separately for essay, a typical e-commerce application include the following:
An order processing scenario that updates the inventory for a particular product. Graduate Programs Creative Writing? This functionality has the potential to exhibit locking and sprinkler essay synchronization problems. A scenario that pages through search results based on user queries. If a user specifies a particularly wide query, there could be a large impact on memory utilization. For example, memory utilization could be affected if a query returns an entire data table. For illustration processes, this section considers the order placement scenario from the sample e-commerce application. The load you apply to a collection publisher, a particular scenario should stress the system sufficiently beyond threshold limits. You can incrementally increase the load and fire sprinkler observe the application behavior over various load conditions. As an alternative, you can start by applying an best short, anti-profile to fire, the workload model from load testing. The anti-profile has the workload distributions inverted for programs writing rankings, the scenario under consideration.
For example, if the normal load for the place order scenario is sprinkler essay book, 10 percent of the total workload, the anti-profile is 90 percent of the total workload. The remaining load can be distributed among the other scenarios. Paper? This can serve as a good starting point for your stress tests. You can continue to increase the load beyond this starting point for stress testing purposes. Configure the anti-profile needs in such a way that the load for the identified scenario is deliberately increased beyond the peak load conditions.
For example, consider the normal workload profile identified for sprinkler book, a sample application that is research paper, shown in Table 16.4. Table 16.4: Sample Workload Profile for a Sample Application. The anti-profile used to stress test the order placement scenario is shown in Table 16.5. Table 16.5: Order Use Case Anti-Profile. Continue to increase the load for this scenario, and observe the application response at various load levels. The time duration of the fire tests depends upon the scenario. For example, it might take 10 to best essays, 15 days to simulate deadlocks on a four-processor machine, but the fire sprinkler same deadlocks may be simulated on an eight-processor machine in half that time.
Identify the metrics corresponding to the potential pitfalls for each scenario. The metrics can be related to both performance and throughput goals, in research paper, addition to ones that provide information about the potential problems. This might include custom performance counters that have been embedded in the application. For example, this might be a performance counter used to monitor the sprinkler essay memory usage of a particular memory stream used to short, serialize a DataSet . For the place order scenario, where contention-related issues are the focus, you need to measure the metrics that report contention in addition to the basic set of counters. Table 16.6 shows the metrics that have been identified for the place order scenario.
Table 16.6: Metrics to Measure During Stress Testing of the Place Order Scenario. Document your test cases for the various workload patterns identified in step 2. Sprinkler Essay? For example: 1,000 simultaneous users. Use a random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in essays, the test script after each operation. Run the test for 2 days. The ASP.NET worker process should not recycle because of deadlock. Throughput should not fall below 35 requests per second. Response time should not be greater than 7 seconds. Server busy errors should not be more than 10 percent of the total response because of contention-related issues. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. This allows you to capture the sprinkler essay book data for essays back to school, your metrics.
Note Make sure that the client computers that you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization, such as processor and memory, should not be very high. Analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, analyze and fix the essay book cause of the george of essays publisher bottleneck. Fire? To address the issue, you might need to orwell a collection publisher, do one of the following: Perform a design review. For more information, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability. Perform a code review. For more information, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance.
Examine the stack dumps of the worker process to diagnose the exact cause of sprinkler essay book, deadlocks. For example, to reduce the contention for the place order scenario of the sample application, you can implement queues into which orders are posted and are processed serially rather than processing them immediately after the order is placed. For more information on back to school, tools and techniques for debugging, see Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at fire essay book, http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954594.aspx. For more information on debugging deadlocks, see Scenario: Contention or Deadlock Symptoms in Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954592.aspx. For more information on deadlocks, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 317723, INFO: What Are Race Conditions and Deadlocks? at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;317723. Workload modeling is the process of english role of media, identifying one or more workload profiles to be simulated against sprinkler essay book, the target test systems. Orwell? Each workload profile represents a variation of the following attributes:
Key scenarios. Numbers of simultaneous users. Rate of requests. Patterns of requests. The workload model defines how each of the identified scenarios is fire sprinkler, executed. Thesis? It also defines approximate data access patterns and identifies user types and sprinkler essay book characteristics. You can determine patterns and call frequency by using either the predicted usage of your application based on market analysis, or if your application is writing research, already in production, by analyzing server log files. Fire Book? Some important questions to help you determine the workload for your application include:
Identify the scenarios that are critical for your application from a performance perspective. You should capture these scenarios as a part of the requirements analysis performed in the very early stages of graduate rankings, your application development life cycle. Simultaneous users are users who have active connections to the same Web site. This represents the maximum operating capacity for your application. For the sample e-commerce application, assume 1,000 simultaneous users. If you are developing a new application, you can obtain these numbers by working with the marketing team and using the results of the essay book team's analysis. For existing applications, you can identify the number of simultaneous users by analyzing your Internet Information Services (IIS) logs.
This depends upon english essay role, the actions a user can perform when he or she is logged into the application. For the sample application, consider the following actions: Connect to the home page. Log on to the application. Browse the product catalog. Fire Sprinkler Essay? Search for specific products. Add products to on returning back, the shopping cart. Validate and place an order.
Log out fire essay book from the application. What are the various user profiles for the application? You can group together the various types of users and writing research paper the actions they perform. For example, there are groups of users who simply connect and fire sprinkler essay book browse the product catalog, and there are other users who log on, search for specific products, and then log out. The total number of users logging on is a subset of the users who actually order products.
Based on this approach, you can classify your user profiles. For the sample application, the user profile classification would include: Browse profile. Search profile. Place order profile. Best Short? What are the operations performed by an average user for fire sprinkler essay book, each profile? The operations performed by best essays an average user for each profile are based on marketing data for a new application and IIS log analysis for an existing one. For example, if you are developing a business-to-consumer e-commerce site, your research-based marketing data tells you that on an average, a user who buys products buys at least three products from your site in sprinkler essay, a single session. The actions performed for the place order profile for the sample application are identified in Table 16.7. Table 16.7: Actions Performed for on returning, the Place Order Profile. A typical user for the place order profile might not search your site, but you can assume such actions by fire sprinkler book averaging out the activity performed by various users for a specific profile.
You can then create a table of actions performed by an average user for all the profiles for english in pakistan, your application. Think time is the fire time spent by the user between two consecutive requests. During this time, the user views the information displayed on a page or enters details such as credit card numbers, depending on the nature of operation being performed. Think time can vary depending on george orwell a collection of essays, the complexity of the data on a page. For example, think time for the logon page is less than the think time for an order placement page where the user must enter credit card details. You can average out the think time for all the requests. For more information about think time, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. The usage pattern for fire sprinkler, each scenario gives an idea in essays back, a given time frame of the percentage mix of business actions performed by users. An example is shown in Table 16.8.
Table 16.8: Sample User Profile Over a Period of Time. The test duration depends on the workload pattern for your application and may range from 20 minutes to as long as a week. Consider the following scenarios: A Web site experiences a steady user profile throughout the day. For example, if you host an online e-commerce site, the operations performed by an average user visiting the site are unlikely to vary during the course of an 8-to-10 hour business day.
The test script for such a site should not vary the profile of users over fire book the test period. Best? The tests are executed simply by varying the number of users for essay, each test cycle. For this scenario, a test duration in the range of 20 minutes to 1 hour may be sufficient. A Web site experiences a varying profile of of media in pakistan, users on fire essay, a given day. For example, a stock brokerage site might experience more users buying (rather than selling) stocks in the morning and the opposite in the evening. Role Of Media In Pakistan? The test duration for fire essay book, this type of application may range between 8 and 16 hours. You may even run tests continuously for a week or multiple weeks with a constant load to observe how your application performs over a sustained period of activity. This helps you identify any slow memory leaks over a period of time.
Your test environment should be capable of simulating production environment conditions. George A Collection Of Essays? To do this, keep the sprinkler book following considerations in mind during the test cycle: Do not place too much stress on role, the client . Create baselines for your test setup . Allow for think time in your test script . Consider test duration . Minimize redundant requests during testing . Consider simultaneous versus concurrent users . Set an appropriate warm up time . The next sections describe each of these considerations. Do Not Place Too Much Stress on sprinkler, the Client. Do not overly stress the client computer used to generate application load. The processor and memory usage on your client computers should be well below the threshold limit (CPU: 75 percent). Otherwise, the client computer may end up as a bottleneck during your testing. To avoid this, consider distributing the load on george a collection publisher, multiple client computers. Also, monitor the network interface bandwidth utilization to fire sprinkler essay book, ensure that the network is not getting congested. Create Baselines for Your Test Setup. Create baselines for your test setup for all types of tests you need to perform.
The setup should be representative of the real life environment. Writing? This has two advantages. First, the fire essay book results from various categories of tests do not reflect the type of hardware you are using. This means that your application modifications are the only variable. Second, you can depend on the test results because the test setup closely mirrors the real life environment.
Allow for Think Time in Your Test Script. Think time reflects the amount of time that a typical user is likely to pause for essays back to school, thought while interacting with your application. During this time, the user views the information displayed on the page or enters details such as credit card numbers or addresses. You should average the think time across various operations. If you do not include think time in your script, there is no time gap between two subsequent requests on a per-user basis. This directly translates to all users firing requests to the server concurrently. Fire Essay Book? So, for a concurrent load of 200 users, there will be 200 requests fired at essays, a given instance to the server. This is not a true representation of how your typical users use your application. Note Omitting think time can be helpful when you want to generate excessive load on the server. Make sure that the think time in your test script is based on real life conditions.
This varies according to essay book, the operations performed by the user, and it varies depending on essays on returning, the page the book user is interacting with. For your test scripts, you can program for english essay role in pakistan, either a fixed think time between consecutive requests or a random think time ranging between minimum and maximum values. You should base the time duration for essay, your tests on the end goal. If the goal is to load test and monitor the application behavior for paper, your workload pattern, the test duration might range from 20 minutes to as long as one week. If the site is expected to experience users of sprinkler essay book, similar profile, and the average user is expected to perform the same set of operations during the intraday activity, a test of 20 minutes to one hour is sufficient for best essays, generating data for load testing.
You may want to run load tests for an extended period — four to five days — to fire essay book, see how your application performs on voorblad ua, the peak operating capacity for a longer duration of time. However, to essay book, generate test data for orwell a collection of essays, your site if your site expects users of different profiles during various hours of operation, you may need to test for at least eight to fire essay book, 10 hours to simulate various user profiles in the workload pattern. For stress testing purposes, the end goal is to run tests to identify potential resource leaks and the corresponding degradation in application performance. This may require a longer duration, ranging from essay role, a couple of fire essay book, hours to a week, depending on the nature of the bottleneck. For tests used to measure the transaction cost of an operation using transaction cost analysis, you might need to short, run test for only approximately 20 minutes. For more information about capacity planning and transaction cost analysis, see How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications in the How To section of this guide. Minimize Redundant Requests During Testing. Make sure that your test load script simulates an appropriate load for your particular scenario and does not generate additional redundant requests. For example, consider a logon scenario.
The complete operation typically consists of two requests: A GET request used to retrieve the initial page where the user supplies a logon name and password. A POST request when the user clicks the Logon button to verify the sprinkler book credentials. The GET request is the same for all users and can easily be cached and served to all users. However, it is the POST request that is critical from a performance perspective. Writing Research? In this example, your test script should avoid sending a GET request before submitting a POST request. By avoiding the GET request within your test script, the client threads of the essay load generator are able to iterate faster through the loop for a given set of essay of media, users, thereby generating more POST requests. This results in fire sprinkler, a more effective stress test for the actual POST operation. However, there may be conditions when even the response to graduate writing, a GET request is book, customized for a user; therefore, you should consider including both the GET and in pakistan POST requests in the stress tests. Consider Simultaneous vs. Concurrent Users.
Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users connect to sprinkler, the site at of essays publisher, exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is sprinkler essay book, likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. To stress test your application by using tools such as ACT, use a think time of zero in your test scripts. This allows you to stress your application without any time lag, with all users concurrently accessing the site. By using an best, appropriate think time, however, you can more accurately mirror a real life situation in which a user takes some time before submitting a new request to the server. High numbers of simultaneous users tend to produce spikes in fire essay, your resource usage and can often cause interaction that is beyond the concurrent load a server can handle. This results in essay role of media, occasional server busy errors. Fire Sprinkler Essay Book? Tests with simultaneous users are very useful because they help you identify the actual load your system can handle without sending back too many server busy errors.
ACT supports warm-up times. The warm-up time is used in a test script to ensure your application reaches a steady state before the back to school test tool starts to fire book, record results. Voorblad Ua? The warm-up time causes ACT to ignore the data from the first few seconds of a test run. This is particularly important for ASP.NET applications because the first few requests trigger just-in-time (JIT) compilation and caching. The warm up time is particularly relevant for short duration tests, so that the fire sprinkler essay initial startup time does not skew the test results. To determine an appropriate warm-up time for your application, use the short ASP.NET ApplicationsCompilations Total counter to measure the effects of JIT compilation. Sprinkler Essay Book? This counter should increase every time a user action triggers the research paper JIT complier. In some cases you may want to know how long it takes to fire essay book, compile and cache.
It should be a separate test; it should not be averaged into short essays, your steady state measurements. Best Practices for Performance Testing. When you test, consider the following best practices. When performing performance testing, make sure you do the fire following: Clear the back to school application and database logs after each performance test run. Excessively large log files may artificially skew the performance results. Identify the sprinkler essay correct server software and hardware to mirror your production environment. Research? Use a single graphical user interface (GUI) client to capture end-user response time while a load is generated on the system.
You may need to generate load by using different client computers, but to make sense of client-side data, such as response time or requests per second, you should consolidate data at a single client and generate results based on the average values. Include a buffer time between the fire sprinkler incremental increases of ua, users during a load test. Use different data parameters for each simulated user to create a more realistic load simulation. Fire Essay Book? Monitor all computers involved in short essays, the test, including the client that generates the load. This is important because you should not overly stress the client. Prioritize your scenarios according to critical functionality and high-volume transactions. Use a zero think time if you need to fire concurrent requests,. Book? This can help you identify bottleneck issues. Stress test critical components of the system to assess their independent thresholds. Do not allow the test system resources to cross resource threshold limits by essays back a significant margin during load testing, because this distorts the data in your results. Do not run tests in live production environments that have other network traffic.
Use an isolated test environment that is representative of the actual production environment. Do not try to break the fire system during a load test. The intent of the load test is not to break the george of essays system. The intent is to observe performance under expected usage conditions. You can stress test to determine the most likely modes of failure so they can be addressed or mitigated. Do not place too much stress on the client test computers. The metrics that you need to sprinkler essay book, capture vary depending on programs creative rankings, the server role. For example, a Web server will have a different set of metrics than a database server. The metrics in this section are divided into the following categories:
The next sections describe each of these categories. Table 16.9 lists the fire essay set of metrics that you should capture on graduate programs rankings, all your servers. Fire Sprinkler Essay Book? These metrics help you identify the george orwell publisher resource utilization (processor, memory, network I/O, disk I/O) on the servers. For more information on the metrics, see Chapter 15, Measuring .NET Application Performance. Table 16.9: Metrics to essay, Be Measured on All Servers. You can either capture a small set of metrics for graduate programs creative writing, the Web server that lets you evaluate the application performance with respect to your performance goals, or you can capture a bigger set of counters that helps you identify potential bottlenecks for your application. Table 16.10 shows a set of counters that helps you evaluate your application performance with respect to goals. The counters can be mapped to fire sprinkler essay, some of the goals as follows: Throughput : ASP.NET ApplicationsRequests/Sec Server-side latency (subset of Response Time) : ASP.NETRequest Execution Time Process utilization : Processor% Processor Time Memory utilized by essays to school the ASP.NET worker process : ProcessPrivate Bytes (aspnet_wp) ?Free memory available for the server : MemoryAvailable MBytes. Table 16.10: Metrics for book, Application Performance Goals. The set of metrics shown in Table 16.11 is the set that you should capture on your Web servers to identify any potential performance bottlenecks for your application.
The set of metrics shown in Table 16.12 is the writing set that you should capture on your database servers that are running SQL Server. This section shows a report template that you can use to create load test reports for essay, your applications. You can customize this template to suit your own application scenarios. Essays? The analysis section of the report demonstrates performance analysis with the help of suitable graphs. Essay Book? You can have other graphs based upon the performance objectives identified for your application.
Before you begin testing and before you finalize the report's format and wish list of role in pakistan, required data, consider getting feedback from the report's target audience. This helps you to plan for your tests and capture all the relevant information. Table 16.13 highlights the main sections and the items you should include in a load test report. Table 16.13: Load Test Report Template. Memory: 1 GB RAM. Number of servers: 2. Load balancing: Yes. Memory: 1 GB RAM.
Number of servers: 1. Load balancing: No. Number of servers: 2. Network Bandwidth between client and server: 100 Mbps. Web server: IIS 5.0. Platform: .NET Framework 1.1. Database Server: SQL Server 2000 Service Pack SP3. trace enabled=false requestLimit=10 pageOutput=false traceMode=SortByTime localOnly=true / sessionState mode=InProc timeout=20/ Table 16.14 shows the workload profile for the sample e-commerce application.
Table 16.14: Sample Application Workload Profile. Table 16.15 shows some sample performance objectives identified in the performance modeling phase for the application. For more information on fire sprinkler essay, performance modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Table 16.15: Performance Objectives. (for each server) Disk I/O (for database server): (custom performance counters)
Table 16.16 lists typical Web server metrics. Table 16.16: Web Server Metrics. Table 16.17 lists typical SQL Server metrics. Table 16.17: SQL Server Metrics. After you capture and consolidate your results, analyze the captured data and compare the english results against the metric's accepted level.
If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, you can analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. The data that you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: The next sections describe each of these data comparisons. The throughput versus user load graph for the test results is fire essay book, shown in Figure 16.3. Figure 16.3: Throughput versus user load graph. The graph identifies the point-of-service level failure. This point represents the graduate creative writing rankings user load the sample application can handle to meet service level requirements for fire essay book, requests per second. The response time versus user load graph, based on best essays, the test results for sprinkler, the sample application, is shown in Figure 16.4.
Figure 16.4: Response time versus user load graph. The response time is george of essays publisher, essentially flat with a gentle rise and linear growth for low to medium levels of load. After queuing on the server becomes excessive, the response time begins to increase suddenly. The graph identifies the user load that the sample application can withstand, while satisfying the service level goals for sprinkler essay book, response time for the application scenario under consideration. The graph in best short, Figure 16.5 shows the fire essay variation of processor utilization with user load.
Figure 16.5: Processor versus user load graph. This graph identifies the workload for the sample application that is below the threshold limit set for processor utilization. The potential bottlenecks based on the analysis of performance counters for the sample application are the following: Low cache hit ratio for the application indicated by the ASP.NET Applications: Cache Total Hit Ratio performance counter. A significant amount of time is spent by the garbage collector in cleanup (indicated by role .NET CLR Memory% Time in GC). This indicates inefficient cleanup of resources. This chapter has explained the fire sprinkler essay book three main forms of performance testing: load testing, stress testing, and essays back to school capacity testing. Fire Sprinkler Essay Book? It has also presented processes for load testing and stress testing. Use these processes together with the other guidance and recommendations in this chapter to research, plan, develop, and run testing approaches for your applications.
By acting appropriately on the test output, you can fine tune your application and remove bottlenecks to improve performance, and you can ensure that your application is fire sprinkler essay, able to scale to meet future capacity demands. For more information about testing performance, see the following resources in this guide: See the following How Tos in the How To section of this guide: For further reading, see the following resources: Performance Testing Microsoft .NET Web Applications , MS Press®.
For a context-driven approach to performance testing and practical tips on running performance tests, see the research articles available at Effective Performance Testing at fire sprinkler essay, http://www.perftestplus.com/pubs.htm. For a systematic, quantitative approach to performance tuning that helps you find problems quickly, identify potential solutions, and prioritize your efforts, see Five Steps to Solving Software Performance Problems, by Lloyd G. Williams, Ph.D., and on returning Connie U. Smith, Ph.D., at http://www.perfeng.com/papers/step5.pdf. For techniques and book strategies for building a collaborative relationship between test and development around performance tuning, see Part 11: Collaborative Tuning from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT11.pdf. For insight into bottleneck identification and analysis, see Part 7: Identify the Critical Failure or Bottleneck from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT7.pdf. This content is essays back, outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies.
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